Spanish Civil War

Civil WarSpaincivil war in SpainwarAragon frontSpanish WarRepublicanThe Spanish Civil WarSpain's civil warSpanish republican
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939.wikipedia
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Republican faction (Spanish Civil War)

RepublicanRepublicansRepublican faction
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the elected government of the Second Spanish Republic against the far-right Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.

Anarchism in Spain

anarchistSpanish anarchistanarchists
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.

Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War)

NationalistsNationalistNationalist faction
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.

Second Spanish Republic

Spanish RepublicRepublicanSecond Republic
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco.

Francisco Franco

FrancoGeneral FrancoFrancoist
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (, ; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

José Sanjurjo

SanjurjoGeneral SanjurjoJose Sanjurjo
The war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo.
General José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquess of the Rif (28 March 1872 – 20 July 1936), was the senior of the three leaders of the Nationalist coup of July 1936, which started the Spanish Civil War.

Emilio Mola

MolaGeneral MolaEmilio Mola Vidal
After the deaths of Sanjurjo, Emilio Mola and Manuel Goded Llopis, Franco emerged as the remaining leader of the Nationalist side.
Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain (9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was one of the three leaders of the Nationalist coup of July 1936, which started the Spanish Civil War.

Carlism

CarlistCarlistsComunión Tradicionalista
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including CEDA, monarchists, including both the opposing Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, and the FE y de las JONS, a fascist political party.
In this capacity, it was the cause of the Carlist Wars of the 19th century and an important factor in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s.

Manuel Azaña

AzañaManuel Azaña DíazManuel '''Azaña
The government at the time was a coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Spanish Civil War broke out while he was President.

Seville

Seville, SpainSevillaSevilla, Spain
The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville.
The 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.

International Brigades

International BrigadeSpanish Medical Aid CommitteeBrigadists
They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.

Catalonia

CatalanCatalansCatalunya
After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, and Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again.

Barcelona

Barcelona, Spaincity of BarcelonaBarcelona, Catalonia
However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government.
During the Spanish Civil War, the city, and Catalonia in general, were resolutely Republican.

Interwar period

interbelluminterwarinterwar years
Due to the international political climate at the time the war had many facets and was variously viewed as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism.
The important stages of interwar diplomacy and international relations included resolutions of wartime issues, such as reparations owed by Germany and boundaries; American involvement in European finances and disarmament projects; the expectations and failures of the League of Nations; the relationships of the new countries to the old; the distrustful relations of the Soviet Union to the capitalist world; peace and disarmament efforts; responses to the Great Depression starting in 1929; the collapse of world trade; the collapse of democratic regimes one by one; the growth of efforts at economic autarky; Japanese aggressiveness toward China, occupying large amounts of Chinese land, as well as border disputes between the Soviet Union and Japan, leading to multiple clashes along the Soviet and Japanese occupied Manchurian border; Fascist diplomacy, including the aggressive moves by Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany; the Spanish Civil War; Italy's invasion and occupation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in the Horn of Africa; the appeasement of Germany's expansionist moves against the German-speaking nation of Austria, the region inhabited by ethnic Germans called the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, the remilitarisation of the League of Nations demilitarised zone of the German Rhineland region, and the last, desperate stages of rearmament as the Second World War increasingly loomed.

Miguel Primo de Rivera

Primo de RiveraprimoderiveristaGeneral Primo de Rivera
In 1923 a military coup brought Miguel Primo de Rivera to power; as a result, Spain transitioned to government by military dictatorship.
His actions discredited the king and ruined the monarchy, while heightening social tensions that led in 1936 to a full-scale Spanish Civil War.

Málaga

MalagaMálaga, SpainMalaga, Spain
However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government.
Its harbour was a base of the Republican navy at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

Bilbao

Bilbao, SpainBilbo, Bilbao, Spain
However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government.
The Spanish Civil War started in Bilbao with a number of small uprisings suppressed by the Republican forces.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939.
The situation led to a civil war, in which the territory was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government, that counted on outside support from the Soviet Union and Mexico, and the other controlled by the Nationalist rebels, most critically supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Hitler sent military supplies and assistance to the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, which began in July 1936.

Falange Española de las JONS

FalangeFalangistFalangists
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including CEDA, monarchists, including both the opposing Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, and the FE y de las JONS, a fascist political party.
The Falange Española de las JONS ceased to exist as such when, during the Civil War, General Francisco Franco merged it with the Traditionalist Communion in April 1937 to form the similarly named Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, which became the sole legal party in Spain until its dissolution in 1977.

Juan Yagüe

General YagüeJuan Yagüe BlancoGeneral Juan Yagüe
On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe, who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic.
Juan Yagüe y Blanco, 1st Marquis of San Leonardo de Yagüe (19 November 1891 – 21 October 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War, one of the most important in the Nationalist side.

Falangism

FalangistFalangistsFascist
Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
During the Spanish Civil War, the Falange and the Carlists prior to the two parties' unification in 1937 both promoted the incorporation of Portugal into Spain.

Burgos

Burgos, SpainMuseo de BurgosMuseum of Burgos
The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville.
During the Spanish Civil War, Burgos was the base of General Franco's rebel Nationalist government.

Manuel Fal Conde

Manuel FalManuel Fal CondéFal Conde
The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, at 17:01, agreed to by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde.
Initially he led the belligerent faction pressing anti-Republican insurgency; during the Spanish Civil War he joined the Nationalists; later on he championed anti-Francoist strategy.

Spanish Socialist Workers' Party

PSOEPartido Socialista Obrero Españolsocialist
Luis Cuenca, a member of the arresting group and a Socialist who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto, summarily executed Calvo Sotelo by shooting him in the back of the neck.
The PSOE played a key role during the Second Spanish Republic, being part of coalition government from 1931 to 1933 and from 1936 to 1939, when the Republic was defeated by Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War.