Spanish Empire

SpanishSpainSpanish coloniesSpanish colonySpanish colonizationSpanish CrownSpaniardsSpanish colonialSpanish colonial empireSpanish rule
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica ), was one of the largest empires in history.wikipedia
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Portuguese Empire

PortuguesePortugalPortuguese colonies
The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire.
The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World, the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies" (Las Indias) and territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.

List of largest empires

largest empires in historylargest empireGlobal Empire
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica ), was one of the largest empires in history.

Spanish East Indies

SpanishPhilippinesSpanish Philippines
Philip II ruled over the greatest maritime powers (Spain, Portugal, and the Low Countries), Sicily and Naples, Franche-Comté in France, the Rhineland in Germany, an uninterrupted tract of the Americas from the viceroyalty of New Spain bordering modern-day Canada all the way down to Patagonia, trading ports throughout India and South Asia, the Spanish East Indies, and select holdings in Guinea and North Africa.
The Spanish East Indies were the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 until 1901.

Spanish colonization of the Americas

Spanish conquestSpanishSpanish colonization
The Spanish empire in the Americas was formed after conquering indigenous empires and claiming large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, Canada, the north-eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean.

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal (as Philip I), he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv[ed] its own laws, institutions, and monetary system, and united only in sharing a common sovereign."
The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines.

Viceroyalty of Peru

PeruViceroy of PeruViceroyalty of Perú
The crown then established viceroyalties in the two main areas of settlement, New Spain (Mexico) and Peru, both regions of dense indigenous populations and mineral wealth.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Council of the Indies

Consejo de IndiasCouncil of IndiesIndies
After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there. These lawyer-bureaucrats staffed the various councils of state, eventually including the Council of the Indies and Casa de Contratación, the two highest bodies in metropolitan Spain for the government of the empire in the New World, as well as royal government in The Indies.
]]The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies''' (Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, ), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and the Philippines.

Council of Italy

ItalySicily and NaplesSpanish Habsburgs
Philip II ruled over the greatest maritime powers (Spain, Portugal, and the Low Countries), Sicily and Naples, Franche-Comté in France, the Rhineland in Germany, an uninterrupted tract of the Americas from the viceroyalty of New Spain bordering modern-day Canada all the way down to Patagonia, trading ports throughout India and South Asia, the Spanish East Indies, and select holdings in Guinea and North Africa.
The Council of Italy, officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of Italy (Real y Supremo Consejo de Italia, Reale e Supremo Consiglio d'Italia) was a ruling body and key part of the government of the Spanish Empire in Europe, second only to the monarch himself.

History of the Philippines (1521–1898)

Spanish colonial periodSpanish colonial eraSpanish Era
The Spanish Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation — the first circumnavigation of the Earth — laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began the Spanish colonization of the Philippines.
Beginning with the arrival in 1521 of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the colonial period of the Philippines as a colony of the Spanish Empire ended with the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonization of the Philippines.

Spanish Netherlands

NetherlandsSpanishLow Countries
Philip II ruled over the greatest maritime powers (Spain, Portugal, and the Low Countries), Sicily and Naples, Franche-Comté in France, the Rhineland in Germany, an uninterrupted tract of the Americas from the viceroyalty of New Spain bordering modern-day Canada all the way down to Patagonia, trading ports throughout India and South Asia, the Spanish East Indies, and select holdings in Guinea and North Africa.
They were a collection of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain).

Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncan
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government.
Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.

Global empire

The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire.
For example, since the territory of the Spanish Empire was extended all over the world, it was often called the "Empire of the Sun" (in the 16th century).

Christopher Columbus

ColumbusCristoforo ColomboColón
The Spanish empire in the Americas was formed after conquering indigenous empires and claiming large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands. Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and first major settlement in the New World in 1493, Portugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain.
His Spanish-based expeditions and governance of the colonies he founded were sponsored by Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Catholic Monarchs of the budding Spanish Empire.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Tordesillas LineTordesilhas LineTordesillas meridian
Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and first major settlement in the New World in 1493, Portugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas ; Tratado de Tordesillas ), signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

Canary Islands

Canary IslandCanariesCanarian
Its rival Castile laid claim to the Canary Islands (1402) and retook territory from the Moors in 1462.
During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing north-easterly trade winds.

Casa de Contratación

Casa de ContratacionHouse of TradeCasa de la Contratación
These lawyer-bureaucrats staffed the various councils of state, eventually including the Council of the Indies and Casa de Contratación, the two highest bodies in metropolitan Spain for the government of the empire in the New World, as well as royal government in The Indies. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to secure a government license and to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits (a receiver of the customs of Guinea was established in Seville in 1475 – the ancestor of the future and famous Casa de Contratación).
The Casa de Contratación (, "House of Trade") or Casa de la Contratación de las Indias ("House of Trade of the Indies") was established by the Crown of Castile, in 1503 in the port of Seville (and transferred to Cadiz in 1717) as a crown agency for the Spanish Empire.

Seville

Seville, SpainSevillaSevilla, Spain
The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to secure a government license and to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits (a receiver of the customs of Guinea was established in Seville in 1475 – the ancestor of the future and famous Casa de Contratación).
After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature.

Complutense University of Madrid

Universidad Complutense de MadridUniversity of MadridComplutense University
The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella began the professionalization of the apparatus of government in Spain, which led to a demand for men of letters (letrados) who were university graduates (licenciados), of Salamanca, Valladolid, Complutense and Alcalá.
By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire.

Peninsular War

Peninsula WarSpanish War of IndependencePeninsula
The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula precipitated the Spanish American wars of independence (1808–1826), resulting in the loss of its most valuable colonies.
After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junot's corps to cross the frontier into the Spanish Empire.

First wave of European colonization

First European colonization waveEuropean colonialismage of colonialism
Furthermore, despite attacks from [[First wave of European colonization#Northern European challenges to Iberian hegemony|Northern European states]], Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease.
Later, the 1481 Papal Bull Aeterni regis granted all lands south of the Canary Islands to Portugal, while in May 1493 the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI decreed in the Bull Inter caetera that all lands west of a meridian only 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain while new lands discovered east of that line would belong to Portugal.

Personal union

personalUnionunited
The two became known as the Catholic Monarchs, with their marriage a personal union that created a relationship between the Crown of Aragon and Castile, each with their own administrations, but ruled jointly by the two monarchs.

The empire on which the sun never sets

The sun never sets on the British Empirea vast Empire, on which the sun never setsempire on which the sun never sets
The Spanish Empire became known as "the empire on which the sun never sets" and reached its maximum extension in the 18th century.
Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and the short-lived German colonizations of the Americas.

Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
From there Juan Ponce de León conquered Puerto Rico (1508) and Diego Velázquez took Cuba.
In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.

Panama

PanamáRepublic of PanamaPAN
The first settlement on the mainland was Santa María la Antigua del Darién in Castilla de Oro (now Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia), settled by Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1510.
Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century.