Spanish Florida

FloridaLa FloridaSecond Spanish PeriodSpanishFirst Spanish Periodsecond Spanish periodsSpanish colony of FloridaSpanish settlements in Floridathe Floridascolonial presence in Florida
Spanish Florida (La Florida) was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.wikipedia
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Georgia (U.S. state)

GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
While its boundaries were never clearly or formally defined, the territory was much larger than the present-day state of Florida, extending over much of what is now the southeastern United States, including all of present-day Florida plus portions of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina (see Fort San Juan), South Carolina, and southeastern Louisiana.
Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Colony of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River.

Captaincy General of Cuba

CubaSpanish CubaCaptain General of Cuba
La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and the Spanish Empire during Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The changes included adding the provinces of Florida and Louisiana and granting more autonomy for these provinces.

St. Augustine, Florida

St. AugustineSaint AugustineSaint Augustine, Florida
By the 18th century, Spain's control over La Florida did not extend much beyond its forts, all located in present-day Florida: near St. Augustine, St. Marks, and Pensacola. The presidio of St. Augustine was founded on Florida's Atlantic coast in 1565; a series of missions were established across the Florida panhandle, Georgia, and South Carolina during the 1600s; and Pensacola was founded on the western Florida panhandle in 1698, strengthening Spanish claims to that section of the territory.
The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years.

Florida

FLState of FloridaFloridian
While its boundaries were never clearly or formally defined, the territory was much larger than the present-day state of Florida, extending over much of what is now the southeastern United States, including all of present-day Florida plus portions of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina (see Fort San Juan), South Carolina, and southeastern Louisiana.
He named it La Florida in recognition of the verdant landscape and because it was the Easter season, which the Spaniards called Pascua Florida (Festival of Flowers).

Narváez expedition

Narvaez expeditionexpeditionPánfilo Narváez
This claim was enlarged as several explorers (most notably Pánfilo Narváez and Hernando de Soto) landed near Tampa Bay in the mid-1500s and wandered as far north as the Appalachian Mountains and as far west as Texas in largely unsuccessful searches for gold and other riches.
The Narváez expedition was a Spanish journey of exploration and colonization started in 1527 that intended to establish colonial settlements and garrisons in Florida.

Spanish missions in Florida

Timucua ProvinceSpanish missionmissions
The presidio of St. Augustine was founded on Florida's Atlantic coast in 1565; a series of missions were established across the Florida panhandle, Georgia, and South Carolina during the 1600s; and Pensacola was founded on the western Florida panhandle in 1698, strengthening Spanish claims to that section of the territory.
Beginning in the second half of the 16th century, the Kingdom of Spain established a number of missions throughout La Florida in order to convert the Indians to Christianity, to facilitate control of the area, and to prevent its colonization by other countries, in particular, England and France.

Fort San Juan (Joara)

Fort San Juan
While its boundaries were never clearly or formally defined, the territory was much larger than the present-day state of Florida, extending over much of what is now the southeastern United States, including all of present-day Florida plus portions of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina (see Fort San Juan), South Carolina, and southeastern Louisiana.
Used as an outpost for Pardo's expedition into the interior of what was known to the Spaniards as "la Florida", Fort San Juan was the foremost of six forts built and garrisoned by Pardo in modern-day North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee to extend Spain's effective control deeper into the North American continent.

North Carolina

NCNorthState of North Carolina
While its boundaries were never clearly or formally defined, the territory was much larger than the present-day state of Florida, extending over much of what is now the southeastern United States, including all of present-day Florida plus portions of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina (see Fort San Juan), South Carolina, and southeastern Louisiana.
He returned by a different route to Santa Elena on Parris Island, South Carolina, then a center of Spanish Florida.

History of Pensacola, Florida

PensacolaOchusehistory
The presidio of St. Augustine was founded on Florida's Atlantic coast in 1565; a series of missions were established across the Florida panhandle, Georgia, and South Carolina during the 1600s; and Pensacola was founded on the western Florida panhandle in 1698, strengthening Spanish claims to that section of the territory.
In the late 17th century the Spanish returned to the area to found the modern Pensacola as an outpost from which to defend their claims to Spanish Florida.

Juan Ponce de León

Ponce de LeonPonce de LeónExpedition of Juan Ponce de León
Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León claimed peninsular Florida for Spain during the first official European expedition to North America.
In 1513, Ponce de León led the first known European expedition to La Florida, which he named during his first voyage to the area.

Tequesta

Tequesta IndiansTekestaTequesta Indian
Several Native American groups (including the Timucua, Calusa, Tequesta, Apalachee, Tocobaga, and the Ais people) had been long-established residents of Florida, and most resisted Spanish incursions onto their land.
They had lived in the region since the 3rd century BCE (the late Archaic period of the continent), and remained for roughly 2,000 years, having disappeared by the time that Spanish Florida was traded to the British, who then established the area as part of the province of East Florida.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and the Spanish Empire during Spanish colonization of the Americas.
At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of the Americas much of North America south of Canada, that is: all of present-day Mexico and Central America except Panama; most of present-day United States west of the Mississippi River, plus the Floridas.

African Americans

African AmericanAfrican-Americanblack
They were later joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies.
In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos.

Louisiana (New France)

LouisianaFrench LouisianaLa Louisiane
The establishment of the Province of Carolina by the English in 1639, New Orleans by the French in 1718, and of the Province of Georgia by Great Britain in 1732 limited the boundaries of Florida over Spanish objections.
As a result of its defeat in the Seven Years' War, France was forced to cede the east part of the territory in 1763 to the victorious British, and the west part to Spain as compensation for Spain losing Florida.

West Florida

Florida OccidentalColony of West FloridaWestern Florida
The U.S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, while Spain insisted that the area was not part of Louisiana and was still Spanish territory.
As its name suggests, it was formed out of the western part of former Spanish Florida (East Florida formed the eastern part, with the Apalachicola River the border), along with lands taken from French Louisiana; Pensacola became West Florida's capital.

Pinckney's Treaty

Treaty of San LorenzoTreaty of Madridceded
After a brief diplomatic border dispute with the fledgling United States, the countries set a territorial border and allowed Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River by the terms of Pinckney's Treaty in 1795.
It also defined the border between the United States and Spanish Florida, and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.

Florida Panhandle

PanhandleNorthwest FloridaPanhandle of Florida
The presidio of St. Augustine was founded on Florida's Atlantic coast in 1565; a series of missions were established across the Florida panhandle, Georgia, and South Carolina during the 1600s; and Pensacola was founded on the western Florida panhandle in 1698, strengthening Spanish claims to that section of the territory.

Seminole

SeminolesSeminole IndiansSeminole Nation
These newcomers – plus perhaps a few surviving descendants of indigenous Florida peoples – eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture.
They developed a thriving trade network during the British and second Spanish periods (roughly 1767–1821).

Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63)

Anglo-Spanish WarAnglo-Spanish War (1762–1763)Anglo-Spanish War (1761)
Great Britain temporarily gained control of Florida beginning in 1763 as a result of the Anglo-Spanish War when the British captured Havana, the principal port of Spain's New World colonies.
By the Treaty of Paris Spain handed over Florida and Menorca to Britain and returned territories in Portugal and Brazil to Portugal in exchange for British withdrawal from Cuba.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
These tensions were exacerbated when the Seminoles aided Great Britain against the United States during the War of 1812 and led to American military incursions into northern Florida beginning in late 1814 during what became known as the First Seminole War.
Fighting also took place in Spanish Florida; a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender.

Province of Carolina

CarolinaCarolina ColonyCarolinas
The establishment of the Province of Carolina by the English in 1639, New Orleans by the French in 1718, and of the Province of Georgia by Great Britain in 1732 limited the boundaries of Florida over Spanish objections.
Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion.

Province of Georgia

GeorgiaColony of GeorgiaGeorgia colony
The establishment of the Province of Carolina by the English in 1639, New Orleans by the French in 1718, and of the Province of Georgia by Great Britain in 1732 limited the boundaries of Florida over Spanish objections.
Another reason for the founding of the colony was as a buffer state and a "garrison province" which would defend the southern British colonies from Spanish Florida.

Tocobaga

Tocobago Tocobaga peopleToco
Several Native American groups (including the Timucua, Calusa, Tequesta, Apalachee, Tocobaga, and the Ais people) had been long-established residents of Florida, and most resisted Spanish incursions onto their land.
The Tampa Bay area was visited by Spanish explorers during the Spanish Florida period in Florida.

War of Jenkins' Ear

War of Jenkins EarJenkins' EarEngland's declaration of war against Spain
The War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–1748) included a British attack on St. Augustine and a Spanish invasion of Georgia, both of which were repulsed.
Tensions increased after the founding of the British colony of Georgia in 1732, which Spain considered a threat to Spanish Florida, vital to protect shipping routes with mainland Spain.

Adams–Onís Treaty

Adams-Onís TreatyAdams-Onis TreatyAdams–Onis Treaty
By the terms of the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, Spanish Florida ceased to exist in 1821, when control of the territory was officially transferred to the United States.
While fighting escaped African-American slaves, outlaws, and Native Americans in U.S.-controlled Georgia during the First Seminole War, American General Andrew Jackson had pursued them into Spanish Florida.