Spanish Florida after Pinckney's Treaty in 1795
St. Augustine in 1891 from the former San Marco Hotel, Spanish St. on left, Huguenot Cemetery lower left corner, Cordova St. on right
Narváez expedition in 1528, Apalachee Bay.
Replicas of the Medici lions of Florence, Italy at the approach to the Bridge of Lions donated by Andrew Anderson
Florida from the 1502 Cantino planisphere
Slave Market, St. Augustine, Florida in 1886
Juan Ponce de León claimed Florida for Spain in 1513
View of St. Augustine from the top of the lighthouse on Anastasia Island
An excerpt from the British–American Mitchell Map, showing northern Spanish Florida, the old mission road from St. Augustine to St. Mark's, and text describing the Carolinian raids of 1702–1706.
Major roadways, St. Augustine and vicinity
The expanded West Florida territory in 1767.
Ray Charles Center and the Theodore Johnson Center, at the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
Under Spanish rule, Florida was divided by the natural separation of the Suwannee River into West Florida and East Florida. (map: Carey & Lea, 1822)
United States Senator David Levy Yulee
Author Zora Neale Hurston
Bell tower on northeast bastion of the Castillo de San Marcos
North bastions and wall of the Castillo, looking eastward toward Anastasia Island
Seawall south of the Castillo
The city gates of St. Augustine, built in 1808, part of the much older Cubo Line
The Government House. East wing of the building dates to the 18th-century structure built on original site of the colonial governor's residence.<ref name="Kornwolf2002">{{cite book|first=James D.|last=Kornwolf|title=Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America|url=|year=2002|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=978-0-8018-5986-1|page=87}}</ref>
thumb|Facade of the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Augustine
Shrine of Our Lady of La Leche at Mission Nombre de Dios
Statue of Ponce de León
Memorial Presbyterian Church
The former Hotel Alcazar now houses the Lightner Museum and City Hall
Bridge of Lions, looking eastward to Anastasia Island
Tolomato Cemetery

The city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years.

- St. Augustine, Florida

By the 18th century, Spain's control over La Florida did not extend much beyond a handful of forts near St. Augustine, St. Marks, and Pensacola, all within the boundaries of present-day Florida.

- Spanish Florida

18 related topics with Alpha



7 links

State located in the Southeastern region of the United States.

State located in the Southeastern region of the United States.

Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539–1543)
The Castillo de San Marcos. Originally white with red corners, its design reflects the colors and shapes of the Cross of Burgundy and the subsequent Flag of Florida.
East Florida and West Florida in British period (1763–1783)
A Cracker cowboy, 19th century
A U.S. Marine boat searching the Everglades for Seminoles (hiding in foreground) during the Second Seminole War
The Battle of Olustee during the American Civil War, 1864
People at the newly opened Don Cesar Hotel in St. Pete Beach, Florida in 1928
White segregationists (foreground) trying to prevent black people from swimming at a "White only" beach in St. Augustine during the 1964 Monson Motor Lodge protests
Miami's Freedom Tower, built in 1925, was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Memorials left on the fence of the Pulse nightclub in Orlando in 2016
Florida is mostly low-lying and flat as this topographic map shows.
The state tree, Sabal palmetto, flourishes in Florida's overall warm climate.
An alligator in the Florida Everglades
West Indian manatee
Red mangroves in Everglades National Park
Fish and corals in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park near Key Largo
American flamingos in South Florida
An American alligator and an invasive Burmese python in Everglades National Park
The Florida Keys as seen from a satellite
All of the 67 counties in Florida
Population density of Florida according to the 2020 census
Cuban men playing dominoes in Miami's Little Havana. In 2010, Cubans made up 34.4% of Miami's population and 6.5% of Florida's.
Church of the Little Flower in Coral Gables, Florida
Hindu Temple of Florida in Tampa
Old and New Florida State Capitol, Tallahassee, East view
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
Florida Supreme Court building in Tallahassee
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
Miami Art Deco District, built during the 1920s–1930s
University of Miami, Coral Gables
University of Central Florida, Orlando
Florida International University, Miami
University of South Florida, Tampa
Florida State University, Tallahassee
University of Florida, Gainesville
The Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay is a part of Florida's interstate system.
Orlando International Airport is the busiest airport in the state with 44.6million total passengers traveled in 2017.
Brightline train at Fort Lauderdale
The Miami Metrorail is the state's only rapid transit system. About 15% of Miamians use public transit daily.
American Airlines Arena in Miami
Marlins Park in Little Havana
Daytona International Speedway is home to various auto racing events.
In God We Trust motto on Florida license plate with a orange blossom the state flower
The Florida panther is the state animal.

Florida subsequently became the first area in the continental U.S. to be permanently settled by Europeans, with the Spanish colony of St. Augustine, founded in 1565, being the oldest continuously inhabited city.

He named it La Florida in recognition of the verdant landscape and because it was the Easter season, which the Spaniards called Pascua Florida (Festival of Flowers).


4 links

The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

Coeehajo, Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park commemorating hundreds of enslaved African Americans who in the early 1820s escaped from this area to freedom in the Bahamas.
Seminole woman, painted by George Catlin, 1834
Seminole family of tribal elder, Cypress Tiger, at their camp near Kendall, Florida, 1916. Photo taken by botanist, John Kunkel Small
Seminole patchwork shawl made by Susie Cypress from Big Cypress Indian Reservation, ca. 1980s
Seminoles' Thanksgiving meal mid-1950s
A Seminole spearing a garfish from a dugout, Florida, 1930
Seminole clipper ship card

The Seminole people emerged in a process of ethnogenesis from various Native American groups who settled in Spanish Florida beginning in the early 1700s, most significantly northern Muscogee Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama.

By the early 1700s, much of La Florida was uninhabited apart from towns at St. Augustine and Pensacola.

A U.S. Marine boat expedition searching the Everglades during the Second Seminole War

Seminole Wars

4 links

The Seminole Wars (also known as the Florida Wars) were three related military conflicts in Florida between the United States and the Seminole, citizens of a Native American nation which formed in the region during the early 1700s.

The Seminole Wars (also known as the Florida Wars) were three related military conflicts in Florida between the United States and the Seminole, citizens of a Native American nation which formed in the region during the early 1700s.

A U.S. Marine boat expedition searching the Everglades during the Second Seminole War
A 1903 map showing the territorial changes of "West Florida"
Andrew Jackson led an invasion of Florida during the First Seminole War.
Edmund Pendleton Gaines commanded Federal troops at the Battle of Negro Fort.
The trial of Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot during the First Seminole War
The Treaty of Moultrie Creek provided for a reservation in central Florida for the Seminoles.
Barracks and tents at Fort Brooke near Tampa Bay
View of a Seminole village shows the log cabins they lived in prior to the disruptions of the Second Seminole War
Osceola, Seminole leader
Woodcut from A true and authentic account of the Indian war in Florida ... (1836)
Osceola was seized at the orders of Gen. Thomas Jesup when he appeared for a meeting under a white peace or "parley" flag.
The remaining Seminoles in Florida were allowed to stay on an informal reservation in southwest Florida at the end of the Second Seminole War in 1842.
Billy Bowlegs, 1858

The First Seminole War (1817-1818) -"Beginning in the 1730's, the Spaniards had given refuge to runaway slaves from the Carolinas, but as late as 1774 Negroes [did] not appear to have been living among the Florida Indians." After that latter date more runaway slaves began arriving from American plantations, especially congregating around "Negro Fort on the Apalachicola River." Free or runaways, "the Negroes among the Seminoles constituted a threat to the institution of slavery north of the Spanish border." The plantation owners, mostly from Mississippi and Georgia "knew this and constantly accused the Indians of stealing their Negroes." However, the situation was "frequently reversed" the whites were raiding into Florida and stealing black slaves belonging to the Seminoles. On December 26, 1817 "the War Department...wrote the order directing Andrew Jackson to take command in person and bring the Seminoles under control." Spain expressed outrage over General Andrew Jackson's "punitive expeditions" into Spanish Florida against the Seminoles. However, as was made clear by several local uprisings, and other forms of "border anarchy", Spain was no longer able to defend nor control the territory and eventually agreed to cede Florida to the United States per the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, with the official transfer taking place in 1821. According to the terms of the Treaty of Moultrie Creek (1823) between the United States and Seminole Nation, the Seminoles were removed from Northern Florida to a reservation in the center of the Florida peninsula, and the United States constructed a series of forts and trading posts along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts to enforce the treaty.

The few remaining natives fled west to Pensacola and beyond or east to the vicinity of St. Augustine.

The Bahamas

4 links

Country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic.

Country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic.

A depiction of Columbus's first landing, claiming possession of the New World for the Crown of Castile in caravels; the Niña and the Pinta, on Watling Island, an island of the Bahamas that the natives called Guanahani and that he named San Salvador, on 12 October 1492.
Continental Marines land at New Providence during the Battle of Nassau in 1776
Sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park commemorating hundreds of African-American slaves who escaped to freedom in the early 1820s in The Bahamas
The lighthouse in Great Isaac Cay.
The Duke of Windsor and Governor of the Bahamas from 1940 to 1945
The Bahamas used to be a Crown colony until it gained independence in 1973
Hurricane Dorian's destruction in the Bahamas
Map of The Bahamas
The Bahamas map of Köppen climate classification.
Dean's Blue Hole in Clarence Town on Long Island, Bahamas.
The Blue Lagoon Island, Bahamas.
The Bahamian Parliament, located in Nassau
Bahamian Prime Minister Hubert Minnis with US President Donald Trump on 22 March 2019
Districts of The Bahamas
A proportional representation of The Bahamas' exports in 2019.
Leonard M. Thompson International Airport
Demographics of Bahamas, data of FAO; number of inhabitants in thousands
Afro-Bahamian children at a local school
White Bahamians on the island of New Providence
Junkanoo celebration in Nassau
Bahamian coat of arms
Thomas Robinson Stadium in Nassau.

Later, in April 1783, on a visit made by Prince William of the United Kingdom (later to become King William IV) to Luis de Unzaga at his residence in the Captaincy General of Havana, they made prisoner exchange agreements and also dealt with the preliminaries of the Treaty of Paris (1783), in which the recently conquered Bahamas would be exchanged for East Florida, which would still have to conquer the city of St. Augustine, Florida in 1784 by order of Luis de Unzaga; after that, also in 1784, the Bahamas would be declared a British colony.


4 links

The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia.

The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia.

One of the engravings based on Jacques le Moyne's drawings, depicting Athore, son of the Timucuan chief Saturiwa, showing René Laudonnière a monument placed by Jean Ribault
A proposed route for the first leg of the de Soto Expedition, based on Charles M. Hudson map of 1997
Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve and Fort Caroline National Memorial
One of the sketches by Jacques le Moyne showing a Timucua village
Timucuan village and inhabitants depicted on a painting in the United States Capitol

The Timucua may have been the first American natives to see the landing of Juan Ponce de León near St. Augustine in 1513.

The Timucua history changed after the Spanish established St. Augustine in 1565 as the capital of their province of Florida.

Map showing results of the Adams–Onís Treaty.

Adams–Onís Treaty

3 links

Map showing results of the Adams–Onís Treaty.
Spanish West Florida and East Florida 1810–1821
The Mississippi River Basin
The Columbia River Basin
Russian claims in the Americas in green, 1812–1824
Saint Peter sailboat
Spanish claims north of Alta California 1789–1795
The Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1800. (NOTE: Many boundaries outside of New Spain are shown incorrectly.)
The Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1821, after the Adams–Onís Treaty took effect. (NOTE: Many boundaries outside of New Spain are shown incorrectly.)
The Adams–Onís Treaty
An 1833 map of the United States in the shape of an eagle
Portion of West Florida that was claimed by the United States.

The Adams–Onís Treaty (Tratado de Adams-Onís) of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain.

The State of Muskogee (1799-1803) demonstrated Spain's inability to control the interior of East Florida, at least de facto; the Spanish presence had been reduced to the capital (San Agustín) and other coastal cities, while the interior belonged to the Seminole nation.

Jacksonville, Florida

3 links

City located on the Atlantic coast of Florida, the most populous city in the state, and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States as of 2020.

City located on the Atlantic coast of Florida, the most populous city in the state, and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States as of 2020.

Replica of Jean Ribault's column claiming Florida for France in 1562
Northeast Florida showing Cow Ford (center) from Bernard Romans' 1776 map of Florida
Section of a light battery by the St. Johns River during the Civil War
Ruins of the courthouse and armory from the Great Fire of 1901
Downtown Jacksonville in 1914
Crowd gathered for a campaign speech from Richard Nixon in Hemming Park, in October 1960
News of Jacksonville's consolidation from The Florida Times-Union
Friendship Fountain and view of downtown Jacksonville in 1982
Satellite photo of Jacksonville
Kingsley Plantation, located within the Timucuan Preserve
Hanna Park
Memorial Park
Map of racial distribution in Jacksonville, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, built in 1887, is one of Jacksonville's oldest churches.
CSX Transportation Building serves as headquarters for CSX Corporation.
Bank of America Tower on Laura Street
Container ship at Port of Jacksonville
The Florida Times-Union Building
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet at Naval Air Station Jacksonville
USS Bataan (LHD-5) at Naval Station Mayport
Gator Bowl Stadium, now TIAA Bank Field, where the annual Gator Bowl has taken place since 1946
Hemming Park hosts a variety of cultural events throughout the year.
Motion picture scene at Gaumont Studios, 1910
Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens
Museum of Science and History
The XX performing at the Florida Theatre
The Star-Spangled Banner performed before a Jacksonville Jaguars game at TIAA Bank Field.
St. James Building, currently housing Jacksonville City Hall
Lenny Curry, the current Mayor of Jacksonville
Duval County Public Schools headquarters
Jacksonville Main Library
The Dames Point Bridge (officially the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge) is a cable-stayed bridge over the St. Johns River. Construction began in 1985 and was completed in 1989.
Jacksonville Skyway
CSX 5508 ready to put office car on Silver Meteor
Jacksonville International Airport
JEA headquarters in downtown Jacksonville
Landing pad at Baptist Medical Center Downtown
Laura Street Trio (1902-1912)
The Carling (1925)
11 East Forsyth (1926)
Eight Forty One (1955)
Riverplace Tower (1967)
Wells Fargo Center (1974)
TIAA Bank Center (1983)
Bank of America Tower (1990)
San Marco
Eastside and Arlington
Riverside and Avondale
Tallulah-North Shore
University of North Florida
Jacksonville University
Florida State College at Jacksonville
Florida Coastal School of Law
Edward Waters College
I-95 passing by downtown Jacksonville
Acosta Bridge
Mathews Bridge
Fuller Warren Bridge
Main St Bridge
Hart Bridge
Dames Point Bridge
Buckman Bridge

A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain; it was named after Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and seventh President of the United States.

On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it.

A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763

Spanish missions in Florida

3 links

A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
Modern map showing the approximate location of Spanish missions and the connecting Camino Real across northern Florida

Beginning in the second half of the 16th century, the Kingdom of Spain established a number of missions throughout La Florida in order to convert the Native Americans to Christianity, to facilitate control of the area, and to prevent its colonization by other countries, in particular, England and France.

Spanish Florida originally included much of what is now the Southeastern United States, although Spain never exercised long-term effective control over more than the northern part of what is now the State of Florida from present-day St. Augustine to the area around Tallahassee, southeastern Georgia, and some coastal settlements, such as Pensacola, Florida.

East Florida

3 links

Excerpt of 1803 map by John Cary showing East and West Florida, limited by the United States' claim to part of Spain-controlled West Florida.
Map of East and West Florida in 1819, the year that Spain ceded Florida to the United States by the Adams–Onís Treaty (ratified 1821)
"Under Spanish rule, Florida was divided by the natural separation of the Suwanee River into West Florida and East Florida."—University of Florida

East Florida (Florida Oriental) was a colony of Great Britain from 1763 to 1783 and a province of Spanish Florida from 1783 to 1821.

Deciding that the territory was too large to administer as a single unit, Britain divided Florida into two colonies separated by the Apalachicola River: East Florida with its capital in St. Augustine and West Florida with its capital in Pensacola.

Aerial view of Castillo De San Marcos

Castillo de San Marcos

3 links

Aerial view of Castillo De San Marcos
Aerial view photo taken from northwest. Although the fort had a water-filled moat at the time, it was originally a dry moat.
Construction plan of the Castillo de San Marcos from 1677
The barrels of cannons deployed on the terreplein project outward through multiple embrasures located along the curtain wall between San Pedro and San Agustín bastions. To the left of center is the sallyport—the only entrance to the fort, reached via drawbridge from the ravelin, which is located within the moat.
View of the Plaza de Armas within Castillo de San Marcos
Interior vaulted ceiling.
The tallest watchtower at the fort is at the corner facing the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.
The San Pablo Bastion at night
Reenactment of Spanish soldiers firing cannons.
Hotshot furnace used to heat cannonballs to shoot at wooden enemy ships.
National Park Service brochure showing an exploded view drawing of fort.
Apache prisoners at Ft. Marion
Castillo de San Marcos map
Entrance to fort, Civil War era
Entrance to fort, Sally port, Civil War era
Captain Pratt with Native American captives at Fort Marion
Howling Wolf, of the southern Cheyenne, photographed while imprisoned at Fort Marion
The north wall of the Castillo
Castillo De San Marcos from the west, looking east.
Fort Marion, St. Augustine and harbor, 1898
The side of Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, FL.
A picture of a cannon on Castillo de San Marcos
alt=|Interior Graffiti
alt=|Interior Graffiti

The Castillo de San Marcos (Spanish for "St. Mark's Castle") is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States; it is located on the western shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida.

It was designed by the Spanish engineer Ignacio Daza, with construction beginning in 1672, 107 years after the city's founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, when Florida was part of the Spanish Empire.