Spatial music

spatializationaudio spatializationspatialisationspatializedSpatialized Audiospatialized soundauditory spatialitySound SpatialisationSound spatializationspace
Spatial music is composed music that intentionally exploits sound localization.wikipedia
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Space music

spacecosmic musicspacey
Though present in Western music from biblical times in the form of the antiphon, as a component specific to new musical techniques the concept of spatial music (Raummusik, usually translated as "space music") was introduced as early as 1928 in Germany.
In 1928, the German composer Robert Beyer published a paper about "Raummusik" (spatial music), which is an entirely different sense of the term.

Karlheinz Stockhausen

StockhausenStockhausen, KarlheinzControversy
Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.
He is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance (aleatory techniques or aleatoric musical techniques) into serial composition, and for musical spatialization.

Henry Brant

Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.
An expert orchestrator with a flair for experimentation, many of Brant's works featured spatialization techniques.

Edgard Varèse

VarèseEdgar VarèseVarèse, Edgard
Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.
According to Chou Wen-chung, Varèse made various contradictory revisions to Étude pour espace which made it impossible to perform again, but the 2009 Holland Festival, which offered a 'complete works' of Varèse over the weekend of 12–14 June 2009, persuaded Chou to make a new performing version (using similar brass and woodwind forces to Déserts and making use of spatialized sound projection).

Poème électronique

Brussels
Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.
Varèse designed a very complex spatialization scheme which was synchronized to the film.

Ice Field

Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.
A, "'spatial narrative,'" or, "spatial organ concerto," and thus an example of Brant's use of spatialization, the work utilizes more than 100 players.

Octophonic sound

octophonicoctophonic musiceight-channel
Octophonic sound
While quadraphonic sound uses four speakers positioned in a square at the four corners of the listening space (either on the ground or raised above the listeners), this cubical kind of octophonic spatialization offers both horizontal and vertical sound spatialization, meaning listeners get a sense of height.

3D audio effect

3D audiopositional audio3D positional audio
3D audio effect
Sound spatialization

Parabolic loudspeaker

holophoneHolophonesparabolic dishes
Holophones
The Holophones loudspeaker system was designed in 1999 by composer Michelangelo Lupone and realized at CRM – Centro Ricerche Musicali in Rome, in order to realize a specific sound spatialization defined as "wavefront sculpture".

Stereophonic sound

Stereostereophonicstereo sound
Stereophonic sound
The result is an accurate duplication of the auditory spatiality that would have been experienced by the listener had he or she been in the same place as the model head.

Sound localization

binaural hearingsound localisationbinaural
Spatial music is composed music that intentionally exploits sound localization.

Antiphon

polychoralantiphonsantiphony
Though present in Western music from biblical times in the form of the antiphon, as a component specific to new musical techniques the concept of spatial music (Raummusik, usually translated as "space music") was introduced as early as 1928 in Germany.

Electroacoustic music

electroacoustictapeelectro-acoustic
The term spatialisation is connected especially with electroacoustic music to denote the projection and localization of sound sources in physical or virtual space or sound's spatial movement in space.

Auditorium

auditoriadress circleauditoriums
1) essentially independent events separated in space, like simultaneous concerts, each with a strong signaling character

Concert

concertsrecitalconcert tour
1) essentially independent events separated in space, like simultaneous concerts, each with a strong signaling character

Reverberation

reverbspring reverbreverberation time
2) one or several such signaling events, separated from more "passive" reverberating background complexes

Musical ensemble

bandgroupensemble
3) separated but coordinated performing groups.

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

PalestrinaPalestrinianGiovanni Palestrina
Examples of spatiality include more than seventy works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (canticles, litanies, masses, Marian antiphons, psalm- and sequence-motets), the five-choir, forty- and sixty-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno by Alessandro Striggio and the possibly related eight-choir, forty-voice motet Spem in alium by Thomas Tallis, as well as a number of other Italian—mainly Florentine—works dating between 1557 and 1601.

Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno

Striggio 40-part mass
Examples of spatiality include more than seventy works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (canticles, litanies, masses, Marian antiphons, psalm- and sequence-motets), the five-choir, forty- and sixty-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno by Alessandro Striggio and the possibly related eight-choir, forty-voice motet Spem in alium by Thomas Tallis, as well as a number of other Italian—mainly Florentine—works dating between 1557 and 1601.

Alessandro Striggio

Striggiocomposer of the same nameSTRIGGIO, ALESSADRO
Examples of spatiality include more than seventy works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (canticles, litanies, masses, Marian antiphons, psalm- and sequence-motets), the five-choir, forty- and sixty-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno by Alessandro Striggio and the possibly related eight-choir, forty-voice motet Spem in alium by Thomas Tallis, as well as a number of other Italian—mainly Florentine—works dating between 1557 and 1601.

Spem in alium

Spem in alium nunquam habuiThe Forty Part Motet
Examples of spatiality include more than seventy works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (canticles, litanies, masses, Marian antiphons, psalm- and sequence-motets), the five-choir, forty- and sixty-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno by Alessandro Striggio and the possibly related eight-choir, forty-voice motet Spem in alium by Thomas Tallis, as well as a number of other Italian—mainly Florentine—works dating between 1557 and 1601.

Thomas Tallis

TallisTallis, Thomas
Examples of spatiality include more than seventy works by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (canticles, litanies, masses, Marian antiphons, psalm- and sequence-motets), the five-choir, forty- and sixty-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno by Alessandro Striggio and the possibly related eight-choir, forty-voice motet Spem in alium by Thomas Tallis, as well as a number of other Italian—mainly Florentine—works dating between 1557 and 1601.

Charles Ives

IvesIves, Charles Ives
Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.

Symphony No. 4 (Ives)

Symphony No. 4Fourth Symphony4th Symphony
Notable 20th-century spatial compositions include Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony (1912–18), Rued Langgaard's Music of the Spheres (1916–18), Edgard Varèse's Poème électronique (Expo '58), Henryk Górecki's Scontri, op. 17 (1960), which unleashes a volume of sound with a "tremendous orchestra" for which the composer precisely dictates the placement of each player onstage, including fifty-two percussion instruments, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Helicopter String Quartet (1992–93/95), which is "arguably the most extreme experiment involving the spatial motility of live performers", and Henry Brant's Ice Field, a "'spatial narrative,'" or "spatial organ concerto," awarded the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Music, as well as most of the output after 1960 of Luigi Nono, whose late works—e.g., ..... sofferte onde serene ... (1976), Al gran sole carico d'amore (1972–77), Prometeo (1984), and A Pierre: Dell’azzurro silenzio, inquietuum (1985)—explicitly reflect the spatial soundscape of his native Venice, and cannot be performed without their spatial component.