Spear

Spear-armed hoplite from Greco-Persian Wars
Wooden spear point from about 420,000 years ago. Natural History Museum, London
Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park
Sumerian spearmen advancing in close formation with large shields – Stele of the Vultures, c.2450 BCE
Athenian warrior wielding a spear in battle
Re-enactor outfitted as a Late Roman legionary carrying a pilum
Assyrian soldier holding a spear and wearing a helmet. Detail of a basalt relief from the palace of Tiglath-pileser III at Hadatu, Syria. 744–727 BCE. Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul
German reenactors of pikemen
Spear with inscription, Zhou dynasty
Shang Dynasty spear heads
A bronze spear, notice the ears on the side of the socket.
A later period qiang
Razakars during Operation Polo
Engraving of a Maratha soldier with spear by James Forbes, 1813.
Ukiyo-e print of a samurai general holding a yari in his right hand
A Filipino warrior holding a Sibat (spear) in the Boxer Codex.
Zulu man with iklwa, 1917
A photograph of an American native, a Hupa man with his spear – by Edward Sheriff Curtis, dated 1923
Spear Case, Crow (Native American), late 19th century, Brooklyn Museum
Peruvian fisherman spearfishing with a multi-pronged spear
A boar-spear with a bar
The Norse god Odin, carrying the spear Gungnir on his ride to Hel
Statue of the Hindu God of War, Murugan, holding his primary weapon, the Vel. Batu Caves, Malaysia.

Pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

- Spear
Spear-armed hoplite from Greco-Persian Wars

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British infantryman in 1941 with a Pattern 1907 bayonet affixed to his rifle

Bayonet

British infantryman in 1941 with a Pattern 1907 bayonet affixed to his rifle
Depiction of a Chinese muzzle-loading musket with a plug bayonet attached from 1606. The weapon's instructional manual and specifications is shown above.
17th-century plug bayonet
Socket of a bayonet, showing triangular cross-section and fluted sides
Early 19th-century offset spiked socket bayonet
Chassepot bolt-action rifle and sword bayonet.
Bayonet assembly system of the Chassepot
British Pattern 1875 Snider saw-backed bayonet (with scabbard) for artillery carbine
U.S. Bayonet Model 1873 trowel
German soldiers at bayonet practice in 1914
Six sailors with Lee–Enfield rifles, standing in the 'On Guard' position during rifle and bayonet drill on board the battleship . October 1940.
From 1899 to 1945, the Japanese used the very long, 15.75 inches (40 cm), Type 30 sword-bladed bayonet on the already long Arisaka rifle.
US military bayonets; from the top down, they are the M1905, the M1, M1905E1 Bowie Point Bayonet (a cut down version of the M1905), and the M4 Bayonet for the M1 Carbine.
A bayonet charge during the Battle of Großbeeren (1813)
A bayonet charge during the American Civil War
French infantry bayonet charge, carrying 1886 Lebel rifles, in 1913
A stretch of no man's land in Flanders Fields, France, 1919
Dead Japanese troops lie where they fell on Attu Island after a final banzai charge against American forces on 29 May 1943 during the Battle of Attu.
A life-size diorama at the US Army Infantry Museum, Fort Benning, Georgia, depicting Millett's charge up Hill 180 during the Korean War that resulted in his receipt of the Medal of Honor.
Legionnaires of the French Military with FAMAS rifles and fixed bayonets.
Soviet AK-47 bayonet and scabbard.
Soviet AKM type II bayonet, multi-purpose knife and wire-cutter when combined with its scabbard.
Multi-purpose AKM Type I bayonet of the Nationale Volksarmee shown cutting a wire
Soviet AKM type II bayonet and scabbard in wire-cutter configuration.
Afghan policeman with AKM and AKM Type II bayonet.
The US M5 bayonet and scabbard used with the M1 Garand
The US M6 bayonet and scabbard used with the M14 rifle
M7 Bayonet and M8A1 Sheath used with the M16 rifle
Adopted in 1986, the US M9 bayonet and scabbard used with the M16 rifle and M4 carbine.
M9 bayonet and scabbard in wire-cutter configuration.
M9 bayonet fitted M4 carbine firing during secondary target drills.
The USMC OKC-3S Bayonet
US Marines at bayonet practice.
Folding an SKS-type bayonet.
A Chinese sailor with a Type 56 with the integral folding spike bayonet, 1986.
Chinese soldier with QBZ-95 rifle and multi-purpose knife bayonet.
Indian Army Gurkha with L1A1 (FN FAL) and traditional bayonet.
Brazilian Army paratroopers with FN FAL rifles with Type C socket bayonets on parade.
Early FN FAL and bayonet.
Kuwaiti soldier with his FN FAL rifle with bayonet.
British-issue L3A1 bayonet. Note the slot in the blade to attach the wire-cutter scabbard.
L3A1 scabbard. Note the lug to attach the bayonet for wire cutting.
British servicemen with fixed L3A1 bayonets on L85A2 rifles. The L3A1's blade is offset to permit firing.
Palace guard at the royal palace, Oslo. Note the G3 type rifle with bayonet over the barrel.
Glock field knife/bayonet and its scabbard. The upper crossguard is bent forward and can be used as a bottle opener.
Irish Army Honor Guard. Note Steyr AUG with EICKHORN KCB-70 type multi-purpose bayonet
Royal New Zealand Navy Guard of Honour. Note Individual Weapon Steyr with American M7 bayonets.
The Royal 22nd Regiment of Canada unfixing their bayonets.
Marines from Marine Barracks Washington D.C. fix their bayonets during rehearsals for the presidential inauguration.
Brazilian LAPA FA-03.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Olive|first=Ronaldo|date=12 September 2013|title=Morre o projetista Nelmo Suzano|url=https://www.planobrazil.com/2013/09/12/morre-o-projetista-nelmo-suzano/|url-status=live|access-date=11 July 2021|website=Plano Brazil|language=pt-BR|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190505234025/http://www.planobrazil.com:80/2013/09/12/morre-o-projetista-nelmo-suzano/ |archive-date=5 May 2019 }}</ref>

A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, dagger, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of the muzzle of a rifle, musket or similar firearm, allowing it to be used as a spear-like weapon.

A period illustration of the Battle of Crécy. English longbowmen figure prominently in the
foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbowmen.

Ranged weapon

Any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the user holding the weapon itself.

Any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the user holding the weapon itself.

A period illustration of the Battle of Crécy. English longbowmen figure prominently in the
foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbowmen.
Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum
Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France
155 mm M198 howitzer
Exocet missile in flight

The line between ranged and melee weapons is not entirely definite; for instance, spears, axes, daggers, and knives can be used for both throwing and striking, depending on purpose and situation, and a ranged weapon can also be used as a melee weapon in close encounters, such as the buttstock of a rifle used for butt-stroking with a fixed bayonet, a handgun used for pistol-whipping, and even an arrow being used as a hand weapon in desperate situations.

Selection of weapons collected by security officers at an airport

Melee weapon

Any handheld weapon used in hand-to-hand combat, i.e. for use within the direct physical reach of the weapon itself, essentially functioning as an additional extension of the user's limbs.

Any handheld weapon used in hand-to-hand combat, i.e. for use within the direct physical reach of the weapon itself, essentially functioning as an additional extension of the user's limbs.

Selection of weapons collected by security officers at an airport

Pointed weapons, which cover spears, pikes, lances, and military forks. They typically have a sharp point designed to inflict penetrating trauma, even against heavily armoured opponents, and the length of such weapons gives a range advantage. Certain variants may also hook at enemies to disrupt and disarm them, or pull them from atop horses.

Sumerian phalanx-like formation c. 2400 BC, from detail of the victory stele of King Eannatum of Lagash over Umma, called the Stele of the Vultures

Phalanx

Sumerian phalanx-like formation c. 2400 BC, from detail of the victory stele of King Eannatum of Lagash over Umma, called the Stele of the Vultures
A modern illustration of the Greek hoplites marching in a phalanx formation
Phalanx in a frieze on the tomb of Pericles, Dynast of Lycia (380–360 BC)
Greek Phalanx against Achaemenid troops
Top: simplified schematic of traditional hoplite order of battle and advance (elite troops in red).
Bottom: the diagonal phalanx utilised by the Thebans under Epaminondas. The strong left wing advanced while the weak right wing retreated or remained stationary.
Dispositions during the Battle of Leuctra, 371 BC
Victorian depiction of a Macedonian phalanx, 4th century BC
Victorian depiction of a Macedonian phalanx at the Battle of the Carts

The phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar pole weapons.

A Greek hoplite

Hoplite

A Greek hoplite
Hoplite, 5th century
Hoplites shown in two attack positions, with both an underhand thrust and an overhand prepared to be thrown
Phalanx fighting on a black-figure amphora, c. 560 BC. The hoplite phalanx is a frequent subject in ancient Greek art
Probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c. 500 BC).
Hoplite armour exhibit from the Archaeological Museum of Corfu. Note the gold inserts around the chest area of the iron breastplate at the centre of the exhibit. The helmet on the upper left is a restored version of the oxidised helmet on the right.
Stele of Aristion, heavy-infantryman or hoplite. 510 BC. Top of helmet and pointed beard missing.
Armour of an ancient Athenian Hoplite
Athenian cavalryman Dexileos fighting a naked Peloponnesian hoplite in the Corinthian War. Dexileos was killed in action near Corinth in the summer of 394 BC, probably in the Battle of Nemea, or in a proximate engagement. Grave Stele of Dexileos, 394-393 BC.
Chigi Vase with Hoplites holding javelins and spears
Hoplites on an aryballos from Corinth, c. 580–560 BC (Louvre)
Crouching warrior, tondo of an Attic black-figure kylix, c. 560 BC (Staatliche Antikensammlungen)
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. Circa 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Spartan hoplite. (Image from Vinkhuijzen Collection of Military Costume Illustration, before 1910)
Paintings of Ancient Macedonian soldiers, arms, and armaments, from the tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki in Greece, 4th century BC
Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, Italy, dated circa 500 BC.

Hoplites ( : hoplítēs) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.

Dart (missile)

Dart (missile)

Darts are airborne ranged weapons.

Darts are airborne ranged weapons.

Dart (missile)
An example of a plumbata
Demonstration of a blowgun by a traditional hunter
Demonstration of the use of a rope dart
Darts on a dartboard

Some alternate terms for this missile have included the spear, but this term has fallen out of favour since in all other uses, spears are stiff enough to be used for stabbing.

A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. By that period, pikemen would primarily defend their unit's musketeers from enemy cavalry.

Pike (weapon)

A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. By that period, pikemen would primarily defend their unit's musketeers from enemy cavalry.
Re-enactment during the 2009 Escalade in Geneva.
First rank with pikes at "charge for horse" static defensive posture, ready to draw swords if needed. Second rank holding their pikes at "charge" for delivering thrusts.
First rank with pikes at "charge", second rank holding pikes at "port". In real action first 3 – 4 ranks will hold their pikes at "charge" (their points projecting forward from the formation front), and those behind will hold weapons at "port" (to avoid injuring front rank friendlies with their points).
Macedonian phalanx
Contemporary woodcut of the Battle of Dornach.
Swiss and Landsknecht pikemen fight at "push of pike" during the Italian Wars.
Pikemen exercising during the Battle of Grolle.
The Battle of Rocroi (1643) marked the end of the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios, painting by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau picture.
An English pikeman (1668), with steel cap, corselet, and tassets.
American petty officers reenact boarding pike drills

A pike is a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry (pikemen).

Norman cavalry attacks the Anglo-Saxon shield wall at the Battle of Hastings as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry. The lances are held with a one-handed over-the-head grip.

Lance

Norman cavalry attacks the Anglo-Saxon shield wall at the Battle of Hastings as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry. The lances are held with a one-handed over-the-head grip.
Lance head, Warring States period
Warring States lance head (pi)
A lance head from the reenactment of the Eglinton Tournament (1839)
Drawing from The War Illustrated representing a Russian Don Cossack lancing a German infantryman.
Russian lance "cavalry pike", type of 1910.

A lance is a spear designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).

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Halberd

Two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

Two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Halberdiers from a modern-day reenactor troupe.
A member of the Swiss Guard with a halberd in the Vatican.
Chinese deity hold a yue.
Different sorts of halberds and halberd-like pole weapons in Switzerland
Citizens of Zürich on 1 May 1351 are read the Federal Charter as they swear allegiance to representatives of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Lucerne. One of the representatives carries a typical Swiss halberd of the period depicted (as opposed to the time the image was made, 1515).
Saint Wiborada is often (anachronistically) depicted with a halberd to indicate the means of her martyrdom.
Halberd-axe head with the head of a mouflon. Late 2nd millennium–early 1st millennium BC. From Amlash, Gilan, Iran.

As the halberd was eventually refined, its point was more fully developed to allow it to better deal with spears and pikes (and make it able to push back approaching horsemen), as was the hook opposite the axe head, which could be used to pull horsemen to the ground.

Man with a shield throwing a javelin

Javelin

Man with a shield throwing a javelin
Javelin thrower. Bronze, Laconian style, third quarter of the 6th century BC
Agrianian peltast. This peltast holds three javelins, one in his throwing hand and two in his pelte hand as additional ammunition
A depiction of a javelin thrower on an ancient Greek vase, ca. 450 BC. Attributed to the painter of the Brussels Oinochoes.
Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum
Norman cavalry armed with lances attacks the Anglo-Saxon shield wall. Notice the dominance of the spearmen in the front line of the formation. In the back of the formation there is one warrior armed with a battle-axe, one archer, and one javelineer. There are javelins in mid-flight and slain soldiers pierced with javelins on the ground
The only known drawing of Shaka. Notice the long throwing assegai
Flag of Eswatini

A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.