Special administrative regions of China

Special Administrative Regionspecial administrative regionsSpecial Administrative Region of the People's Republic of Chinaspecial administrative region of ChinaSARSARsSpecial Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of ChinaChinese special administrative regionsautonomous territoryChinese special administrative region
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government.wikipedia
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Provinces of China

ProvinceprovincesChinese provinces
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government.
There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government.
Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Mainland China

mainlandMainland ChineseChina
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982.
It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).

Administrative divisions of China

county-level divisioncounty-level divisionsPrefecture
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982.
The most recent administrative changes have included the elevation of Hainan (1988) and Chongqing (1997) to provincial level status, and the creation of Hong Kong (1997) and Macau (1999) as Special administrative regions.

Sino-British Joint Declaration

Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong KongJoint DeclarationSino–British Joint Declaration
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987.
In accordance with the "one country, two systems" principle agreed between the UK and the PRC, the socialist system of PRC would not be practised in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), and Hong Kong's previous capitalist system and its way of life would remain unchanged for a period of 50 years until 2047.

One country, two systems

One Country Two SystemsOne country-two systemsindependence of legal system
Under the One country, two systems principle, the two SARs continue to possess their own governments, multi-party legislatures, legal systems, police forces, monetary systems, separate customs territory, immigration policies, national sports teams, official languages, postal systems, academic and educational systems, and substantial competence in external relations that are different or independent from the People's Republic of China.
The Hong Kong Basic Law ensured that Hong Kong will retain its capitalist economic system and own currency (the Hong Kong Dollar), legal system, legislative system, and people's rights and freedom for fifty years, as a special administrative region (SAR) of China for 50 years.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionHong Kong, ChinaHongkong
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987.
Hong Kong (, Cantonese: ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China.

Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong)

Court of Final AppealHong Kong Court of Final AppealCourt of Final Appeal of Hong Kong
Consequently, the National People's Congress authorizes the SAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, and each with their own Courts of Final Appeal.
Under the Basic Law, the constitutional document of Hong Kong, the special administrative region remains a common law jurisdiction.

Government of China

Chinese governmentGovernment of the People's Republic of ChinaBeijing
Special administrative regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services, extradition, handling of double taxation and others, with no Chinese Government involvement.
Some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, where according to constitution and respective basic law, most national laws do not apply and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and usually Han Chinese.

Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau

Sino-Portuguese Joint Declarationagreementjoint declaration
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987.
Although it would become a full part of the People's Republic of China, Macau would enjoy the status of a Special Administrative Region (SAR), with full autonomy and self-governance in domestic affairs, economic policy and internal security.

Basic law

fundamental lawAmendmentBasic Law of various jurisdictions
Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy".
The Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China, namely Hong Kong and Macau, have basic laws as their constitutional documents.

Macau

MacaoMacau, ChinaMacanese
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987.
Macau or Macao, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China.

Chief Executive of Macau

Chief ExecutiveMacau Chief ExecutiveChief executives
The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chefe do Executivo da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is the head of government of Macau, a special administrative region of China and a former Portuguese overseas province governed by the Governor of Macau.

Standing Committee of the National People's Congress

National People's Congress Standing CommitteeStanding CommitteeNPC Standing Committee
A notable use of the constitutional interpretation power occurred in 1999 over the Right of Abode issue in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in Lau Kong Yung v. Director of Immigration.

Supreme People's Court

Supreme People's Court of ChinaSupreme People's Court of the People's Republic of ChinaSupreme Court
Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court.

British National (Overseas)

British Nationals (Overseas)British NationalBritish National Overseas
Due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality (e.g. British National (Overseas) status, British citizenship, British Overseas citizenship or Portuguese citizenship).
The entire territory of Hong Kong would be transferred to China at the conclusion of the New Territories lease in 1997 and governed under Chinese sovereignty as a special administrative region.

People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison

PLA Hong Kong GarrisonHong Kong GarrisonMilitary of Hong Kong
The People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison is a garrison of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), responsible for defense duties in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region since the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC in 1997.

Constitution of the People's Republic of China

constitutionChinese ConstitutionConstitution of China
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982.

Supreme People's Procuratorate

Supreme People’s ProcuratorateprocuratoratePeople's Procuratorate
Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate legal systems, based on common law traditions and Portuguese legal traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the SPP.

Dependent territory

dependent territoriesdependencydependencies
At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987.

Foreign relations of Macau

limited'' under "Macau, ChinaMacau representation officerelations with foreign nations
As a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Macau's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the Central People's Government of the PRC.

People's Liberation Army

PLAChinese People's Liberation ArmyChinese Army
The People's Liberation Army is garrisoned in both SARs.
Residents of the Special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, are exempted from joining the military.

Right of abode in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Chineseright of abodeChinese
As a special administrative region of China, the territory does not have its own nationality law and natural-born residents are generally Chinese citizens.

Special economic zones of China

Special Economic Zonespecial economic zonesSpecial Economic Zone of China
Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote trade and investments.

Statelessness

statelessstateless personstateless persons
SAR permanent residents who are not Chinese citizens (including stateless persons) are not eligible for SAR passports.
Hong Kong, as a special administrative region of China, does not have its own citizenship laws.