Special reconnaissance

reconnaissancespecial reconSRSurveillancecovert reconnaissancefratricide incident in Afghanistanremote sensor operationsspecialspecial combat reconnaissancespecial intelligence
This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence.wikipedia
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Long-range surveillance

Long Range SurveillanceLong Range Surveillance UnitsLRS Team
During the Vietnam War, respective division and brigades in-country trained their Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol members (now known as the Long Range Surveillance units).
Long-range surveillance (LRS) teams (pronounced "lurse") are elite, specially-trained surveillance units of the United States Army employed for clandestine operation by Military Intelligence for gathering direct human intelligence information deep within enemy territory.

5th Special Forces Group (United States)

5th Special Forces Group5th SFG5th Special Forces Group (Airborne)
However, the US Army's 5th Special Forces Group held an advanced course in the art of patrolling for potential Army and Marine team leaders at their Recondo School in Nha Trang, Vietnam, for the purpose of locating enemy guerrilla and main force North Vietnamese Army units, as well as artillery spotting, intelligence gathering, forward air control, and bomb damage assessment.
5th Group—as it is sometime called—is designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance.

Reconnaissance

scoutscoutsreconnaissance in force
Special reconnaissance (SR) is conducted by small units of highly trained military personnel, usually from special forces units or military intelligence organizations, who operate behind enemy lines, avoiding direct combat and detection by the enemy.
Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance.

Human intelligence (intelligence gathering)

HUMINThuman intelligenceintelligence
SR was recognized as a key special operations capability by a former US Secretary of Defense William J. Perry: "Special Reconnaissance is the conduct of environmental reconnaissance, target acquisition, area assessment, post-strike assessment, emplacement and recovery of sensors, or support of Human Intelligence (HUMINT) and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) operations."
See special reconnaissance for details.

Special forces

Special Operations Forcesspecial operations forcespecial operations
Special reconnaissance (SR) is conducted by small units of highly trained military personnel, usually from special forces units or military intelligence organizations, who operate behind enemy lines, avoiding direct combat and detection by the enemy. These platoons were most often composed of Ranger-qualified soldiers and given selection of advanced training in order to allow them to work in close conjunction with Special Forces and US Government Agencies.

Special Boat Service

SBSSpecial Boat SectionSpecial Boat Squadron
Beach measurements are often assigned to naval SR units like the United States Navy SEALs or UK Special Boat Service.
The principal roles of the SBS are Special Reconnaissance (SR), including information reporting and target acquisition; Offensive Action (OA), including direction of air strikes, artillery and naval gunfire, designation for precision guided munitions, use of integral weapons and demolitions; and Support and Influence (SI), including overseas training tasks.

Direct action (military)

direct actiondirect-actioninfiltration forces
Like other special forces, SR units may also carry out direct action (DA) and unconventional warfare (UW), including guerrilla operations. Special forces units that perform SR are usually polyvalent, so SR missions may be intelligence gathering in support of another function, such as counter-insurgency, foreign internal defense (FID), guerrilla/unconventional warfare (UW), or direct action (DA).
Unconventional warfare, special reconnaissance and direct action roles have merged throughout the decades and are typically performed primarily by the same units.

Long-range reconnaissance patrol

Long Range Reconnaissance PatrolLRRPdeep reconnaissance
During the Vietnam War, respective division and brigades in-country trained their Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol members (now known as the Long Range Surveillance units).
The Danish Defence Forces had three Long-Range Surveillance companies (LRSC) known as "Patrol-Companies" (PTLCOY): Two assigned to the two Land Commands: LANDJUT and LANDZEALAND (Corps-level) (abbreviated "SEP/ELK" and "SEP/VLK" for: "Specielle Efterretningspatruljer/Østre resp. Vestre Landskommando" i.e. Special Intelligence Patrols) – two all-volunteer units within the Danish Home Guard - that was changed into the Special Support and Reconnaissance Company (SSR) in 2007 as a Special Reconnaissance (SR) Company dedicated to supporting the Danish Special Operations.

United States Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command

MARSOCMarine Corps Forces Special Operations CommandMarine Special Operations Command
There is a SIGINT platoon within the Intelligence Company of the new Marine Special Operations Support Group.
Its core capabilities are direct action, special reconnaissance and foreign internal defense.

Project DELTA

Operation Project DeltaSpecial Force Detachment B-52
First, US-led SR teams, under Project DELTA sent in US-led teams.
Project DELTA was the first of the four Special reconnaissance (SR) units with a Greek letter formed by the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) during the Vietnam War to collect operational intelligence in remote areas of South Vietnam.

Sayeret Matkal

Israel's elite Special ForcesIsraeli commandosSayeret Mat'kal
The Sayeret Matkal reconnaissance unit was central to this Israeli mission.
General Staff Reconnaissance Unit, or Unit 269, more commonly known as Sayeret Matkal, meaning Sayeret (special reconnaissance unit) of the Matkal (General Staff), is the prime sayeret unit of the Israel Defense Forces.

Foreign internal defense

Foreign Internal DefenceForeign Internal Defense (FID)FID
Special forces units that perform SR are usually polyvalent, so SR missions may be intelligence gathering in support of another function, such as counter-insurgency, foreign internal defense (FID), guerrilla/unconventional warfare (UW), or direct action (DA).
In the Sierra Leonian situation, the primary Leviathan was Great Britain, with Operation Barras, which involved special reconnaissance, direct action, and hostage rescue.

List of Special Reconnaissance organizations

units with an official special reconnaissance role
Many countries have units with an official special reconnaissance role, including:
The following list of organizations possess the capability to conduct Special Reconnaissance (SR) and other special operations roles, with SR often by specialists within them.

United States Army Rangers

RangerU.S. Army RangersArmy Ranger
These platoons were most often composed of Ranger-qualified soldiers and given selection of advanced training in order to allow them to work in close conjunction with Special Forces and US Government Agencies.
Primary tasks include: direct action, national and international emergency crisis response, airfield seizure, airborne & air assault operations, special reconnaissance, intelligence & counter intelligence, combat search and rescue, personnel recovery & hostage rescue, joint special operations, and counter terrorism.

United States Navy SEALs

Navy SEALsNavy SEALSEAL
Beach measurements are often assigned to naval SR units like the United States Navy SEALs or UK Special Boat Service.
One of the SEALs' immediate concerns was their lack of suitable vehicles to conduct special reconnaissance (SR) missions in the rough, landlocked terrain of Afghanistan.

United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance

Force ReconnaissanceForce ReconMarine Force Recon
For SIGINT operations, the basic augmentation to United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance (Force Recon) is a 6-man detachment from a Radio Reconnaissance Platoon.
He formed Force Recon's missions that are still distinct today: remote sensor operations.

Lithuanian Special Operations Force

Special Operations ForceLithuanian Special Operation ForceLithuanian Special Operations Forces
The main tasks of the Special Operations Force are counter terrorism, special reconnaissance, and hostage rescue.

13th Parachute Dragoon Regiment

13 e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes13e RDP13e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes
The 13th Parachute Dragoon Regiment (13 e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes, 13 e RDP) is a special reconnaissance regiment of the French Army.

Special Air Service

SASBritish SAS22 Special Air Service Regiment
From 1941, volunteers from various countries formed, under the auspices of the British Army, the Long Range Desert Group and Special Air Service, initially for service in the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

Special Operations Executive

SOES.O.E.Special Operations Executive (SOE)
These later formed the basis of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), which conducted operations in occupied Europe.

Kopassus

Komando Pasukan KhususIndonesian special forcesResimen Para Komando Angkatan Darat
Kopassus (a portmanteau of Komando Pasukan Khusus or "Special Forces Command") is an Indonesian Army (TNI-AD) special forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, intelligence gathering and Special reconnaissance (SR).

Taifib

Amphibious Reconnaissance BattalionBatalyon Intai Amfibi
Taifib (Indonesian: Batalyon Intai Amfibi) is an elite recon unit within the Indonesian Marine Corps which is tasked for conducting amphibious reconnaissance and special reconnaissance.

Pathfinders Company (Portugal)

Pathfinders CompanyAir-Land Pathfinders CompanyPathfinders
The Air-Land Pathfinders Company (Companhia de Precursores Aeroterrestres) - known as the Precs - is a special reconnaissance unit of the Portuguese Paratroopers.

45th Guards Spetznaz Brigade

45th Detached Reconnaissance Regiment45th Guards Independent Reconnaissance Brigade45th Detached Reconnaissance Brigade
The 45th Spetsnaz (Special Purpose) Airborne Brigade (45-я отдельная гвардейская бригада специального назначения (45-я ОБр СпН); Military Unit Number 28337) is a special reconnaissance and special operations military unit of the Russian Airborne Troops, based near Moscow.

Special Reconnaissance Regiment

SRRSpecial Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR)
The Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR) is a special reconnaissance unit of the British Army.