Species

specificspecific namespecific epithetphylogenetic species conceptspp.biological speciesanimal speciesOther speciesmorphospeciessp.
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Biodiversity

diversitybiological diversitybiodiverse
In biology, a species (, is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level.

Taxonomic rank

superfamilysuperfamiliesrank
In biology, a species (, is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc.

Biology

biologicalbiologistbiological sciences
In biology, a species (, is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary theory
If as Carl Linnaeus thought, species were fixed and clearly distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another.
It is this process of evolution that has given rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms and molecules.

Reproduction

reproductivereproduceprocreation
A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosis, with typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote.

Chronospecies

paleosubspeciespalaeosubspeciesfaunal turnover
Problems also arise when dealing with fossils, since reproduction cannot be examined; the concept of the chronospecies is therefore used in palaeontology.
A chronospecies is a species derived from a sequential development pattern which involves continual and uniform changes from an extinct ancestral form on an evolutionary scale.

Karyotype

karyotypingkaryogramFN
Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche.
The term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species or in an individual organism and for a test that detects this complement or measures the number.

Binomial nomenclature

scientific namebinomial namebinomial authority
All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial".
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.
Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs.
In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family.

Speciation

divergedspeciatedtrichotomy
Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

Specific name (zoology)

specific namespecific epithetspecies name
The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature, also sometimes in zoological nomenclature).
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen).

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
That understanding was greatly extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology.
Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
The environment of a genome includes the molecular biology in the cell, other cells, other individuals, populations, species, as well as the abiotic environment.

Extinction

extinctspecies extinction
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer; new species can arise rapidly through hybridisation and polyploidy; and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), usually a species.

Boa (genus)

Boaboa constrictorboas
For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa.
Two species are currently recognized.

Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial.

Ring species

ring distribution
For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear.
Ring species also present an interesting case of the species problem for those seeking to divide the living world into discrete species.

Sexual reproduction

sexuallysexualreproduce sexually
A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.
Sexual dimorphism is where the basic phenotypic traits vary between males and females of the same species.

Transmutation of species

transmutationtransformismtransmutationism
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in a radical departure from Aristotelian thinking.
Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

Cat

domestic catcatsdomestic cats
The commonly used names for kinds of organisms are often ambiguous: "cat" could mean the domestic cat, Felis catus, or the cat family, Felidae.
It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae.

Jaguar

jaguarsYaguaretépanther
Another problem with common names is that they often vary from place to place, so that puma, cougar, catamount, panther, painter and mountain lion all mean Puma concolor in various parts of America, while "panther" may also mean the jaguar (Panthera onca) of Latin America or the leopard (Panthera pardus) of Africa and Asia.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

Leopard

leopardspantherpanthers
Another problem with common names is that they often vary from place to place, so that puma, cougar, catamount, panther, painter and mountain lion all mean Puma concolor in various parts of America, while "panther" may also mean the jaguar (Panthera onca) of Latin America or the leopard (Panthera pardus) of Africa and Asia.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
In biology, a species (, is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species.

Fossil

fossilsfossil recordfossilized
Problems also arise when dealing with fossils, since reproduction cannot be examined; the concept of the chronospecies is therefore used in palaeontology.
They work on the premise that, although different sediments may look different depending on the conditions under which they were deposited, they may include the remains of the same species of fossil.