Spectroscopy

spectroscopiclaser spectroscopyspectroscopistspectral analysisoptical spectroscopyspectroscopicallyatomic spectraspectroscopic analysisspectrographyspectrometry
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.wikipedia
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Interferometry

interferometerinterferometricoptical interferometry
Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency, predominantly in the electromagnetic spectrum, though matter waves and acoustic waves can also be considered forms of radiative energy; recently, with tremendous difficulty, even gravitational waves have been associated with a spectral signature in the context of LIGO and laser interferometry.
Interferometry is an important investigative technique in the fields of astronomy, fiber optics, engineering metrology, optical metrology, oceanography, seismology, spectroscopy (and its applications to chemistry), quantum mechanics, nuclear and particle physics, plasma physics, remote sensing, biomolecular interactions, surface profiling, microfluidics, mechanical stress/strain measurement, velocimetry, and optometry.

Electromagnetic spectrum

spectrumspectrawhite light
Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency, predominantly in the electromagnetic spectrum, though matter waves and acoustic waves can also be considered forms of radiative energy; recently, with tremendous difficulty, even gravitational waves have been associated with a spectral signature in the context of LIGO and laser interferometry.
In most of the frequency bands above, a technique called spectroscopy can be used to physically separate waves of different frequencies, producing a spectrum showing the constituent frequencies.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalChemical Sciences
Spectroscopy, primarily in the electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental exploratory tool in the fields of physics, chemistry, and astronomy, allowing the composition and structure of matter to be investigated at molecular scale, macro scale, and over astronomical distances.
They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography.

Prism

prismsprismaticoptical prism
Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism.
Prisms will generally disperse light over a much larger frequency bandwidth than diffraction gratings, making them useful for broad-spectrum spectroscopy.

Biomedical spectroscopy

Important applications arise from biomedical spectroscopy in the areas of tissue analysis and medical imaging.
Biomedical spectroscopy is a multidisciplinary research field involving spectroscopic tools for applications in the field of biomedical science.

Astronomical spectroscopy

spectrumspectroscopicspectra
Spectroscopy is also used in astronomy and remote sensing on Earth.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.

Spectrometer

spectrometersspectrometryspectrograph
Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs or spectral analyzers.
The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses.

Analytical chemistry

chemical analysisanalytical chemistanalytical
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra.
Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields.

Near-infrared spectroscopy

near infrared spectroscopyNIRSnear-infrared
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).

Microwave spectroscopy

microwavemicrowave spectramicrowave spectrometer
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.

X-ray spectroscopy

X-ray spectrometerX-ray spectraX-ray
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
X-ray spectroscopy is a general term for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.

Absorption spectroscopy

absorption spectrumabsorption spectraabsorption
Absorption spectroscopy: Absorption occurs when energy from the radiative source is absorbed by the material. Absorption is often determined by measuring the fraction of energy transmitted through the material, with absorption decreasing the transmitted portion.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

Gamma spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectroscopynuclear spectroscopygamma ray spectroscopy
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
The gamma spectrum is characteristic of the gamma-emitting nuclides contained in the source, just as in optical spectroscopy, the optical spectrum is characteristic of the material contained in a sample.

Fluorescence spectroscopy

fluorescencefluorometricfluorometry
Emission spectroscopy: Emission indicates that radiative energy is released by the material. A material's blackbody spectrum is a spontaneous emission spectrum determined by its temperature. This feature can be measured in the infrared by instruments such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Emission can also be induced by other sources of energy such as flames or sparks or electromagnetic radiation in the case of fluorescence.
Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorimetry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.

Physical chemistry

physical chemistphysicochemicalphysical
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra.
Spectroscopy is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Spectroscopy, primarily in the electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental exploratory tool in the fields of physics, chemistry, and astronomy, allowing the composition and structure of matter to be investigated at molecular scale, macro scale, and over astronomical distances.

Resonance

resonantresonant frequencyresonance frequency
One of the central concepts in spectroscopy is a resonance and its corresponding resonant frequency.
Material resonances in atomic scale are the basis of several spectroscopic techniques that are used in condensed matter physics

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

NMRNMR spectroscopymagnetic resonance spectroscopy
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

Emission spectrum

emissionemission spectraemission spectroscopy
Emission spectroscopy: Emission indicates that radiative energy is released by the material. A material's blackbody spectrum is a spontaneous emission spectrum determined by its temperature. This feature can be measured in the infrared by instruments such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Emission can also be induced by other sources of energy such as flames or sparks or electromagnetic radiation in the case of fluorescence. Spectroscopic data are often represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.
Therefore, spectroscopy can be used to identify the elements in matter of unknown composition.

Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

time-correlated single photon countingTCSPCfemtosecond spectroscopy
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

Robert Bunsen

BunsenRobert Wilhelm BunsenR. Bunsen
After inventing the spectroscope, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered new elements by observing their emission spectra.
He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium (in 1860) and rubidium (in 1861) with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.

Gustav Kirchhoff

KirchhoffGustav Robert KirchhoffGustav R. Kirchhoff
After inventing the spectroscope, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered new elements by observing their emission spectra.
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

Coherent spectroscopy

Coherent
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Spectroscopy is the study of light through light-matter interactions.

Electron paramagnetic resonance

electron spin resonanceEPRESR
Molecular spectra can be obtained due to electron spin states (electron paramagnetic resonance), molecular rotations, molecular vibration, and electronic states.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

Visible spectrum

visiblevisible lightspectrum
Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism.
Spectroscopy is the study of objects based on the spectrum of color they emit, absorb or reflect.