Spectroscopy

spectroscopiclaser spectroscopyspectroscopistspectral analysisoptical spectroscopyspectroscopicallyatomic spectraspectroscopic analysisspectrographyspectrometry
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.wikipedia
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Astronomical spectroscopy

spectrumspectroscopicspectra
Spectroscopy is also used in astronomy and remote sensing on Earth.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.

Analytical chemistry

chemical analysisanalytical chemistanalytical
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra.
Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields.

Spectrometer

spectrometersspectrometryspectrograph
Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs or spectral analyzers.
The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses.

Near-infrared spectroscopy

near infrared spectroscopyNIRSnear-infrared
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).

X-ray spectroscopy

X-ray spectrometerX-ray spectraX-ray
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
X-ray spectroscopy is a general term for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.

Absorption spectroscopy

absorption spectrumabsorption spectraabsorption
Absorption spectroscopy: Absorption occurs when energy from the radiative source is absorbed by the material. Absorption is often determined by measuring the fraction of energy transmitted through the material, with absorption decreasing the transmitted portion.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

Microwave spectroscopy

microwavemicrowave spectramicrowave spectrometer
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.

Prism

prismsprismaticoptical prism
Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism.
Prisms will generally disperse light over a much larger frequency bandwidth than diffraction gratings, making them useful for broad-spectrum spectroscopy.

Gamma spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectroscopynuclear spectroscopygamma ray spectroscopy
Electromagnetic radiation was the first source of energy used for spectroscopic studies. Techniques that employ electromagnetic radiation are typically classified by the wavelength region of the spectrum and include microwave, terahertz, infrared, near-infrared, ultraviolet-visible, x-ray, and gamma spectroscopy.
The gamma spectrum is characteristic of the gamma-emitting nuclides contained in the source, just as in optical spectroscopy, the optical spectrum is characteristic of the material contained in a sample.

Fluorescence spectroscopy

fluorescencefluorometricfluorometry
Emission spectroscopy: Emission indicates that radiative energy is released by the material. A material's blackbody spectrum is a spontaneous emission spectrum determined by its temperature. This feature can be measured in the infrared by instruments such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Emission can also be induced by other sources of energy such as flames or sparks or electromagnetic radiation in the case of fluorescence.
Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorimetry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

NMRNMR spectroscopymagnetic resonance spectroscopy
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

time-correlated single photon countingTCSPCfemtosecond spectroscopy
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

Robert Bunsen

BunsenRobert Wilhelm BunsenR. Bunsen
After inventing the spectroscope, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered new elements by observing their emission spectra.
He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium (in 1860) and rubidium (in 1861) with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.

Gustav Kirchhoff

KirchhoffGustav Robert KirchhoffGustav R. Kirchhoff
After inventing the spectroscope, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered new elements by observing their emission spectra.
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

Electron paramagnetic resonance

electron spin resonanceEPRESR
Molecular spectra can be obtained due to electron spin states (electron paramagnetic resonance), molecular rotations, molecular vibration, and electronic states.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

Emission spectrum

emissionemission spectraemission spectroscopy
Emission spectroscopy: Emission indicates that radiative energy is released by the material. A material's blackbody spectrum is a spontaneous emission spectrum determined by its temperature. This feature can be measured in the infrared by instruments such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer. Emission can also be induced by other sources of energy such as flames or sparks or electromagnetic radiation in the case of fluorescence. Spectroscopic data are often represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.
Therefore, spectroscopy can be used to identify the elements in matter of unknown composition.

Raman spectroscopy

RamanRaman spectraRaman spectrometer
Vibrations are relative motions of the atomic nuclei and are studied by both infrared and Raman spectroscopy.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

Coherent spectroscopy

Coherent
Coherent or resonance spectroscopy are techniques where the radiative energy couples two quantum states of the material in a coherent interaction that is sustained by the radiating field. The coherence can be disrupted by other interactions, such as particle collisions and energy transfer, and so often require high intensity radiation to be sustained. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used resonance method, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy is also possible in the infrared and visible spectral regions.
Spectroscopy is the study of light through light-matter interactions.

Acoustic resonance spectroscopy

ultrasound spectroscopy
Acoustic resonance spectroscopy is based on sound waves primarily in the audible and ultrasonic regions.
Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) is a method of spectroscopy in the acoustic region, primarily the sonic and ultrasonic regions.

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy

Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS)cavity ring down spectrometercavity ring down spectroscopy
Cavity ring-down spectroscopy
Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive optical spectroscopic technique that enables measurement of absolute optical extinction by samples that scatter and absorb light.

Resonance

resonantresonant frequencyresonance frequency
One of the central concepts in spectroscopy is a resonance and its corresponding resonant frequency.
Material resonances in atomic scale are the basis of several spectroscopic techniques that are used in condensed matter physics

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

CARScoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS)CARS microscopy,
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is a recent technique that has high sensitivity and powerful applications for in vivo spectroscopy and imaging.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, also called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), is a form of spectroscopy used primarily in chemistry, physics and related fields.

Physical chemistry

physical chemistphysicochemicalphysical
Spectroscopy is used in physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra.
Spectroscopy is the related sub-discipline of physical chemistry which is specifically concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.

Mössbauer spectroscopy

Mössbauer spectrometerMössbauerMössbauer spectra
Mössbauer spectroscopy probes the properties of specific isotopic nuclei in different atomic environments by analyzing the resonant absorption of gamma rays. See also Mössbauer effect.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

laser induced breakdown spectroscopylaser-induced breakdownlaser analyzer
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, also called laser-induced plasma spectrometry
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source.