# Spectrum bias

In biostatistics, spectrum bias refers to the phenomenon that the performance of a diagnostic test may vary in different clinical settings because each setting has a different mix of patients.wikipedia
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### Bias (statistics)

biasbiasedstatistical bias
Mathematically, the spectrum bias is a sampling bias and not a traditional statistical bias; this has led some authors to refer to the phenomenon as spectrum effects, whilst others maintain it is a bias if the true performance of the test differs from that which is 'expected'.

### Sampling bias

ascertainment biasbiased samplebias
Mathematically, the spectrum bias is a sampling bias and not a traditional statistical bias; this has led some authors to refer to the phenomenon as spectrum effects, whilst others maintain it is a bias if the true performance of the test differs from that which is 'expected'.

### Biostatistics

biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician
In biostatistics, spectrum bias refers to the phenomenon that the performance of a diagnostic test may vary in different clinical settings because each setting has a different mix of patients.

### Medical test

diagnostic testdiagnostic testsdiagnostic testing
In biostatistics, spectrum bias refers to the phenomenon that the performance of a diagnostic test may vary in different clinical settings because each setting has a different mix of patients.

### Sensitivity and specificity

sensitivityspecificitysensitive
Usually the performance of a diagnostic test is measured in terms of its sensitivity and specificity and it is changes in these that are considered when referring to spectrum bias. Examples where the sensitivity and specificity change between different sub-groups of patients may be found with the carcinoembryonic antigen test and urinary dipstick tests.

### Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing

likelihood ratiolikelihood ratioslikelihood
However, other performance measures such as the likelihood ratios may also be affected by spectrum bias.

### Empirical evidence

empiricala posterioriempirical data
This final cause is not widely appreciated, but there is mounting empirical evidence as well as theoretical arguments which suggest that it does indeed affect a test's performance.

### Carcinoembryonic antigen

CEAcarcino-embryonary antigencarcinoembryonic
Examples where the sensitivity and specificity change between different sub-groups of patients may be found with the carcinoembryonic antigen test and urinary dipstick tests.

### Urine test strip

urine dipstickurine dipsticksDiagnostic test strips
Examples where the sensitivity and specificity change between different sub-groups of patients may be found with the carcinoembryonic antigen test and urinary dipstick tests.

### Homogeneity (statistics)

homogeneityhomogeneousheterogeneity
If properly analyzed, recognition of heterogeneity of subgroups can lead to insights about the test's performance in varying populations.

### Reporting bias

selective reportingOutcome reporting biasunderestimate

### Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

CCSVICCVIchronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency
Such outstanding results have raised suspicions of a possible spectrum bias, which originates on a diagnostic test not being used under clinically significant conditions.

### Outline of statistics

StatisticsList of basic statistics topicsoutline

### List of statistics articles

List of statistical topicsList of statistics topicsIndex of statistics articles