Speech

spokenspeakingspeech communicationoralspeakhuman speechverbaltalkingvoice communicationSpeech Communications
Speech is human vocal communication using language.wikipedia
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Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Speech is human vocal communication using language. Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech. Each language uses phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if they are the same word, e.g., "role" or "hotel"), and using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence.
Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille.

Speech perception

perceptionprocessacoustic landmarks and distinctive features
Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech.
The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology.

Speech repetition

Nonword Repetitionword repetitionphonetically
Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech.
Speech repetition is when one individual speaks the sounds they've heard another person pronounce or say.

Speech error

slips of the tonguelapsus linguaeslip of the tongue
Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech.
They can be subdivided into spontaneously and inadvertently produced speech errors and intentionally produced word-plays or puns.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Speech is the subject of study for linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, psychology, computer science, speech pathology, otolaryngology, and acoustics.
According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language.

Acoustics

acousticacousticianacoustical
Speech is the subject of study for linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, psychology, computer science, speech pathology, otolaryngology, and acoustics.
Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture.

Speech-language pathology

speech therapyspeech pathologyspeech therapist
Speech is the subject of study for linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, psychology, computer science, speech pathology, otolaryngology, and acoustics.

Vocabulary

vocabularieslexicalactive vocabulary
Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech.
A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words they use in speech.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
Normal human speech is pulmonic, produced with pressure from the lungs, which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx, which is then modified by the vocal tract and mouth into different vowels and consonants.
The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible.

Alaryngeal speech

buccal speechbuccalalaryngeal
However humans can pronounce words without the use of the lungs and glottis in alaryngeal speech, of which there are three types: esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech (better known as Donald Duck talk).
Alaryngeal speech is speech made using sources other than the glottis in the larynx to create voiced sound.

Expressive aphasia

Broca's aphasiamotor aphasianon-fluent aphasia
Speech errors associated with certain kinds of aphasia have been used to map certain components of speech onto the brain and see the relation between different aspects of production: for example, the difficulty of expressive aphasia patients in producing regular past-tense verbs, but not irregulars like 'sing-sang' has been used to demonstrate that regular inflected forms of a word are not individually stored in the lexicon, but produced from affixation of the base form.
A person with expressive aphasia will exhibit effortful speech.

Vocal cords

vocal foldsvocal cordvocal fold
Open when breathing and vibrating for speech or singing, the folds are controlled via the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve.

Speech processing

speech signal processingspeechmachine processing of speech
Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of signals.

Stuttering

stutterstammerstammering
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds.

Origin of language

evolution of languageOrigins of languagelanguage
The evolutionary origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.
A distinction can be drawn between speech and language.

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
Aphasia is not caused by damage to the brain that results in motor or sensory deficits, which produces abnormal speech; that is, aphasia is not related to the mechanics of speech but rather the individual's language cognition (although a person can have both problems).

Jargon aphasia

jargon speechneologistic jargonProgressive Jargon Aphasia
Damage to Wernicke's area produces Wernicke's or receptive aphasia, which is characterized by relatively normal syntax and prosody but severe impairment in lexical access, resulting in poor comprehension and nonsensical or jargon speech.
Jargon aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia in which an individual's speech is incomprehensible, but appears to make sense to the individual.

Public speaking

public speakerspeakeroratory
Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.

Vocology

logopedicLogopedics Phoniatrics Vocologyvocologist
Its concerns include the nature of speech and language pathology, the defects of the vocal tract (laryngology), the remediation of speech therapy, and the voice training (voice therapy) and voice pedagogy of song and speech for actors and public speakers.

Carl Wernicke

Karl WernickeWernicke
Wernicke's area is named after Carl Wernicke, who in 1874 proposed a connection between damage to the posterior area of the left superior temporal gyrus and aphasia, as he noted that not all aphasic patients had suffered damage to the prefrontal cortex.
Shortly after Paul Broca published his findings on language deficits caused by damage to what is now referred to as Broca's area, Wernicke began pursuing his own research into the effects of brain disease on speech and language.

Superior temporal gyrus

superiorsuperior temporal cortexsuperior temporal gyri
The classical or Wernicke-Geschwind model of the language system in the brain focuses on Broca's area in the inferior prefrontal cortex, and Wernicke's area in the posterior superior temporal gyrus on the dominant hemisphere of the brain (typically the left hemisphere for language).

Communication

communicationsSocial Communicationcommunicate
Speech is human vocal communication using language.

Vowel

vowelsvowel heightV
Normal human speech is pulmonic, produced with pressure from the lungs, which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx, which is then modified by the vocal tract and mouth into different vowels and consonants. Each language uses phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if they are the same word, e.g., "role" or "hotel"), and using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence.