Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech actspeech-actspeech-act theoryassertioncommunicative actsdirectivedeclarationdirectives
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.wikipedia
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Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
Specific interests include the topics of language learning, language creation, and speech acts.

Performative utterance

performativeperformativesperformative utterances
The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts.
In the philosophy of language and speech acts theory, performative utterances are sentences which not only describe a given reality, but also change the social reality they are describing.

Performativity

performativeperformperformance theory
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
Influenced by Austin, philosopher and gender theorist Judith Butler argued that gender is socially constructed through commonplace speech acts and nonverbal communication that are performative, in that they serve to define and maintain identities.

Illocutionary act

illocutionaryillocutionary forceforce
The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Following the usage of, for example, John R. Searle, "speech act" is often meant to refer just to the same thing as the term illocutionary act, which John L. Austin had originally introduced in How to Do Things with Words (published posthumously in 1962).
The concept of illocutionary acts was introduced into linguistics by the philosopher J. L. Austin in his investigation of the various aspects of speech acts.

Perlocutionary act

perlocutionaryperlocutionary forceperlocutions
The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts.
A perlocutionary act (or perlocutionary effect) is a speech act, as viewed at the level of its consequences, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise affecting the listener.

Locutionary act

locutionary
The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts.
In linguistics and the philosophy of mind, a locutionary act is the performance of an utterance, and hence of a speech act.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used in communicative acts, and the role played by context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning

John Searle

SearleJohn R. SearleSearle, John
Following the usage of, for example, John R. Searle, "speech act" is often meant to refer just to the same thing as the term illocutionary act, which John L. Austin had originally introduced in How to Do Things with Words (published posthumously in 1962). The concept of constitutive rules finds its origin in Wittgenstein and Rawls, and has been elaborated by G.C.J. Midgley, Max Black, G.H. von Wright, David Shwayder, and John Searle.
Searle's early work on speech acts, influenced by J. L. Austin and Ludwig Wittgenstein, helped establish his reputation.

Metalocutionary act

The term metalocutionary act has also been used to indicate a speech act that refers to the forms and functions of the discourse itself rather than continuing the substantive development of the discourse, or to the configurational functions of prosody and punctuation.
In linguistic pragmatics, the term metalocutionary act is sometimes used for a speech act that refers to the forms and functions of the discourse itself rather than continuing the substantive development of the discourse.

Adolf Reinach

Reinach
Adolf Reinach (1883–1917) and Stanislav Škrabec (1844–1918) have been both independently credited with a fairly comprehensive account of social acts as performative utterances dating to 1913, long before Austin and Searle.
Besides his work in the area of phenomenology and philosophy in general, Reinach is credited for the development of a forerunner to the theory of speech acts by Austin and Searle: Die apriorischen Grundlagen des bürgerlichen Rechtes (The A Priori Foundations of Civil Law) is a systematic treatment of social acts as performative utterances and a priori foundations of civil law.

Direction of fit

directions of fitword and worldword–world relations
Direction of fit
The narrower, more specific set, word-to-world (i.e., word-to-fit-world) vs. world-to-word (i.e., world-to-fit-word) used by advocates of speech act theory such as John Searle.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
Pragmatics
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.

J. L. Austin

John AustinAustinJohn L. Austin
The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Following the usage of, for example, John R. Searle, "speech act" is often meant to refer just to the same thing as the term illocutionary act, which John L. Austin had originally introduced in How to Do Things with Words (published posthumously in 1962).
John Langshaw Austin (26 March 1911 – 8 February 1960) was a British philosopher of language and leading proponent of ordinary language philosophy, perhaps best known for developing the theory of speech acts.

Phatic expression

phaticphatic communion
Phatic
In phatic expressions, speech acts are not communicative, since no content is communicated.

Carlo Dalla Pozza

Other attempts have been proposed by Per Martin-Löf for a treatment of the concept of assertion inside intuitionistic type theory, and by Carlo Dalla Pozza, with a proposal of a formal pragmatics connecting propositional content (given with classical semantics) and illocutionary force (given by intuitionistic semantics).
A link between his interest in linguistics and his work in logic is given by the formal theory of pragmatics (speech acts), based an original connection between classical logic (concerning the content of the assertion) and intuitionistic logic (concerning the act of assertion).

Geoffrey Midgley

The concept of constitutive rules finds its origin in Wittgenstein and Rawls, and has been elaborated by G.C.J. Midgley, Max Black, G.H. von Wright, David Shwayder, and John Searle.
Midgley, influenced by Wittgenstein and J.L. Austin, did some groundbreaking work in the fields of deontic logic, philosophy of language and speech act theory.

Politeness theory

politenessBrown and Levinson's politeness theorypoliteness strategies
Politeness theory
2) The Four Politeness Strategies Are Not Mutually Exclusive: Some claim that a few of these techniques may be used in more than one type of situation or more than one at a time. Additionally, a given speech act (of any politeness strategy) can have multiple consequences, rather than affecting only positive face or negative face as the current theory suggests.

Presupposition

presuppositionspresupposeassumptions
Presupposition
Van Dijk (2003) says CDA "primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality" operate in speech acts (including written text)—"text and talk".

Implicature

conversational implicatureimpliedImplicit
Implicature
Indirect speech act

Kent Bach

According to Kent Bach, "almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience".

Logical consequence

entailsentailmentfollows from
This is indirect because the literal meaning of "I have class" does not entail any sort of rejection.

Paul Grice

GriceGriceanHerbert Paul Grice
Following substantially an account of H. P. Grice, Searle suggests that we are able to derive meaning out of indirect speech acts by means of a cooperative process out of which we are able to derive multiple illocutions; however, the process he proposes does not seem to accurately solve the problem.

Sociolinguistics

sociolinguisticsociolinguistsociolinguists
Sociolinguistics has studied the social dimensions of conversations.

Positivism

positivistpositivisticpositivists
For much of the history of linguistics and the positivist philosophy of language, language was viewed primarily as a way of making factual assertions, and the other uses of language tended to be ignored, as Austin states at the beginning of Lecture 1, "It was for too long the assumption of philosophers that the business of a 'statement' can only be to 'describe' some state of affairs, or to 'state some fact', which it must do either truly or falsely."

Sui generis

special caseunique circumstancegenre-defying
The term 'social act' and some of the theory of this sui generis type of linguistic action are to be found in the fifth of Thomas Reid's Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind (1788, chapter VI, Of the Nature of a Contract).