Spermatozoon

spermatozoaspermsperm cellsspermatozoidhuman spermsperm cellspermsspermatozoanAcrosome reactionsperm-producing
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from ("seed") and ("living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.wikipedia
483 Related Articles

Sperm

sperm cellspermatiasperm cells
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from ("seed") and ("living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium.

Male

malesmasculine
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring.
Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization.

Semen

seminal fluidseminalsperm
Semen has an alkaline nature and the spermatozoa do not reach full motility (hypermotility) until they reach the vagina, where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal fluids.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

Flagellum

flagellaflagellatedflagellar
The tail flagellates, which propels the sperm cell (at about 1–3 mm/minute in humans) by whipping in an elliptical cone.
An example of a eukaryotic flagellate cell is the mammalian sperm cell, which uses its flagellum to propel itself through the female reproductive tract.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Anton van LeeuwenhoekAntoni van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek
Sperm cells were first observed in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's laboratory in 1677.
He was also the first to document microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, red blood cells, crystals in gouty tophi, and blood flow in capillaries.

Female

femalesfeminine
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring.
The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male.

Motility

motilenonmotilenon-motile
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from ("seed") and ("living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

Prostate

prostate glandprostaticventral prostate
Just as they become hypermotile, fibrinolysin from the prostate gland dissolves the clot, allowing the sperm to progress optimally.
This prostatic fluid is slightly alkaline, milky or white in appearance, and in humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of semen, the other 70% being spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid.

Gamete

gametesgameticreproductive cells
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from ("seed") and ("living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
This process also involves meiosis occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to produce the haploid spermatozoon.

X chromosome

XX-chromosomechromosome X
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring.
Early in embryonic development in females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly and permanently inactivated in nearly all somatic cells (cells other than egg and sperm cells).

Sex

biological sexsexesanatomical sex
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring.
The gametes of animals have male and female forms—spermatozoa and egg cells.

Human fertilization

fertilizationconceptionfertilisation
DNA damages present in spermatozoa in the period after meiosis but before fertilization may be repaired in the fertilized egg, but if not repaired, can have serious deleterious effects on fertility and the developing embryo.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.

Chromatin

chromatin structuresex chromatinnuclear chromatin
The specimen contributes with DNA/chromatin, a centriole, and perhaps also an oocyte-activating factor (OAF).
For example, spermatozoa and avian red blood cells have more tightly packed chromatin than most eukaryotic cells, and trypanosomatid protozoa do not condense their chromatin into visible chromosomes at all.

Micrometre

μmµmmicrometers
A human sperm cell consists of a flat, disc shaped head 5.1 µm by 3.1 µm and a tail 50 µm long.

Somatic cell

somatic cellssomaticvegetative cell
Compared to mitotic chromosomes in somatic cells, sperm DNA is at least sixfold more highly condensed.
For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo.

Seminal vesicle

seminal vesiclesvesicula seminalisvesicular gland
During this period, fibrinogen from the seminal vesicles forms a clot, securing and protecting the sperm.
Spermatozoa may occasionally be found within the lumen of the glands, even though the vesicles are blind-ended in nature.

Centriole

centriolesciliogenesiscentric
The specimen contributes with DNA/chromatin, a centriole, and perhaps also an oocyte-activating factor (OAF). Neck: It is the smallest part (0.03 ×10 −6 m), and has a proximal and distal centriole.
Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets.

Aneuploidy

aneuploidaneuploidiesdisomy
Exposure of males to certain lifestyle, environmental or occupational hazards may increase the risk of aneuploid spermatozoa.
Exposure of males to lifestyle, environmental and/or occupational hazards may increase the risk of spermatozoa aneuploidy.

Drosophila bifurca

D. bifurca
Drosophila melanogaster produces sperm that can be up to 1.8 mm, while its relative Drosophila bifurca produces the largest known spermatozoon, measuring over 58 mm in length.
Males of this species are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth---an impressive 5.8 cm long when uncoiled, over twenty times the entire body length of the male.

Reproductive system

reproductive tractreproductivegenital system
The female immune system might otherwise attack sperm in the reproductive tract.
The final category are those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm) within the male, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper's gland.

Sertoli cell

Sertoli cellsSertoliname
The blood-testis barrier, maintained by the tight junctions between the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules, prevents communication between the forming spermatozoa in the testis and the blood vessels (and immune cells circulating within them) within the interstitial space.
The cell is also responsible for establishing and maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche, which ensures the renewal of stem cells and the differentiation of spermatogonia into mature germ that progress stepwise through the long process of spermatogenesis, ending in the release of spermatozoa in a process known as spermiation.

Insemination

inseminateinseminateddonor insemination
During copulation the cloaca or vagina gets inseminated, and then the spermatozoa move through chemotaxis to the ovum inside a Fallopian tube or the uterus.
Insemination is the introduction of sperm into a female animal’s reproductive system for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
The human spermatozoon contains at least 7500 different proteins.
These proteins are crucial for cellular motility of single celled organisms and the sperm of many multicellular organisms which reproduce sexually.

Oocyte

oocytesovocytegerminal vesicle
The specimen contributes with DNA/chromatin, a centriole, and perhaps also an oocyte-activating factor (OAF).
The spermatozoon that fertilizes an oocyte will contribute its pronucleus, the other half of the zygotic genome.

Testicle

testestestistesticles
Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes in a process called spermatogenesis.
The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that develop from puberty through old age into sperm cells (also known as spermatozoa or male gametes).