Spermidine

Spermidine is a polyamine compound found in ribosomes and living tissues, and having various metabolic functions within organisms.wikipedia
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Polyamine

polyaminesthermosperminetriamine
Spermidine is a polyamine compound found in ribosomes and living tissues, and having various metabolic functions within organisms. Spermidine is a precursor to further polyamines, such as spermine and its structural isomer thermospermine.
The principal examples are the triamine and tetraamine spermidine and spermine.

Semen

seminal fluidseminalsperm
It was originally isolated from semen.
Basic amines such as putrescine, spermine, spermidine and cadaverine are responsible for the smell and flavor of semen.

Putrescine

tetramethylenediamine
Spermidine synthase (SPDS) catalyzes the formation of spermidine from putrescine.
They are also found in semen and some microalgae, together with related molecules like spermine and spermidine.

Spermidine synthase

Spermidine synthase (SPDS) catalyzes the formation of spermidine from putrescine.
Spermidine synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine group from S-adenosylmethioninamine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine.

Spermine

Spermidine is a precursor to further polyamines, such as spermine and its structural isomer thermospermine.
The intermediate is spermidine.

Norspermidine

bis(3-aminopropyl)amine
Norspermidine is a polyamine of similar structure to the more common spermidine.

Isomer

isomersisomerismisomeric
Spermidine is a precursor to further polyamines, such as spermine and its structural isomer thermospermine.

N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid

NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartateN''-Methyl- D -aspartic acid
Spermidine regulates biological processes, such as Ca 2+ influx by glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor), which has been associated with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cGMP/PKG pathway activation and a decrease of Na +,K + -ATPase activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

Nitric oxide synthase

iNOSinducible nitric oxide synthaseNO synthase
Spermidine regulates biological processes, such as Ca 2+ influx by glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor), which has been associated with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cGMP/PKG pathway activation and a decrease of Na +,K + -ATPase activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

Longevity

life spanlong-livedlifespan
Spermidine is a longevity agent in mammals due to various mechanisms of action, which are just beginning to be understood.

Autophagy

macroautophagyautophagicautophagic pathway
Autophagy is the main mechanism at the molecular level, but evidence has been found for other mechanisms, including inflammation reduction, lipid metabolism, and regulation of cell growth, proliferation and death.

Drought

droughtsdrought reliefdry
Also, spermidine is a precursor to other polyamines, such as spermine and thermospermine, some of which contribute to tolerance against drought and salinity in plants.

Salinity

salinesalinitiespsu
Also, spermidine is a precursor to other polyamines, such as spermine and thermospermine, some of which contribute to tolerance against drought and salinity in plants.

Endosperm

albuminousexalbuminouskernel
In grains, the endosperm contains most of the spermidine.

Cereal germ

germwheat germrice germ
One of the best known grain dietary sources is wheat germ, containing as much as 243 mg/kg.

Gene gun

Trypanothione

trypanothione reductase
Trypanothione is an unusual form of glutathione containing two molecules of glutathione joined by a spermidine (polyamine) linker.

Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase
Polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are essential for cellular growth under most conditions, being implicated in many cellular processes including DNA, RNA and protein synthesis.

Spermine synthase

Spermine synthase (, spermidine aminopropyltransferase, spermine synthetase) is an enzyme that converts spermidine into spermine.

Spermidine dehydrogenase

The 3 substrates of this enzyme are spermidine, acceptor, and H 2 O, whereas its 3 products are propane-1,3-diamine, 4-aminobutanal, and reduced acceptor.

Polyamines in plant stress

There are three common types of polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, hermospermine according to structure, universal distribution in all cellular compartment s, and presumed involvement in physiological activities.