Spinal cord

The spinal cord (in yellow) connects the brain to nerves throughout the body.
Part of human spinal cord. 1 – central canal; 2 – posterior median sulcus; 3 – gray matter; 4 – white matter; 5 – dorsal root + dorsal root ganglion; 6 – ventral root; 7 – fascicles; 8 – anterior spinal artery; 9 – arachnoid mater; 10 – dura mater
Diagram of the spinal cord showing segments
A model of segments of the human spine and spinal cord, nerve roots can be seen extending laterally from the (not visible) spinal cord.
Spinal cord seen in a midsection of a five-week-old embryo
Spinal cord seen in a midsection of a 3 month old fetus
Spinal cord tracts.
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy. Animation in the reference.
Diagrams of the spinal cord.
Cross-section through the spinal cord at the mid-thoracic level.
Cross-sections of the spinal cord at varying levels.
Cervical vertebra
A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots.
The spinal cord with dura cut open, showing the exits of the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
A longer view of the spinal cord.
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Cross-section of rabbit spinal cord.
Cross section of adult rat spinal cord stained using Cajal method.
An overview of the spinal cord.
Sagittal section of pig vertebrae showing a section of the spinal cord.
The base of the brain and the top of the spinal cord
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection
Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection.
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection.
Spinal cord
Medulla spinalis of 8-week-old human embryo

Long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

- Spinal cord

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Foramen magnum

Large, oval-shaped opening in the occipital bone of the skull.

Upper surface of base of the skull. The hole indicated by an arrow is the foramen magnum
Skull seen from below. The hole through which the medulla (shown in red) is passing is foramen magnum.
Opisthion shown in red
Occipital bone inner surface (basion shown in red)

The spinal cord, an extension of the medulla oblongata, passes through the foramen magnum as it exits the cranial cavity.

Lumbar

Adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum.

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The actual spinal cord terminates between vertebrae one and two of this series, called L1 and L2.

Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system, that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

Four types of sensory neuron
Illustration of Tactile Receptors in the Skin
Illustration of Lamellated Corpuscle
Illustration of Ruffini Corpuscle
Illustration of Skin Merkel Cell
Illustration of Tactile Corpuscle
Illustration of Root Hair Plexus
Illustration of Free Nerve Endings

The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord.

Afferent nerve fiber

Afferent nerve fibers are the axons (nerve fibers) carried by a sensory nerve that relay sensory information from sensory receptors to regions of the brain.

In the peripheral nervous system, afferent and efferent projections are always from the perspective of the spinal cord.
Nervous System Organization - The Motor and Sensory Systems

In the peripheral nervous system afferent and efferent nerve fibers are part of the somatic nervous system and arise from outside of the spinal cord.

Spinal canal

Spinal cavity shown as part of dorsal body cavity.

The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the canal that contains the spinal cord within the vertebral column.

Peripheral nervous system

One of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS).

The human nervous system. Sky blue is PNS; yellow is CNS.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Lumbosacral Plexus

The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.

Spinal nerve

The formation of the spinal nerve from the posterior and anterior roots
Spinal nerve
Typical spinal nerve location
Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve
1. Somatic efferent.
2. Somatic afferent.
3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent.
6,7. Autonomic afferent.
Cervical nerves
Lumbar plexus and branches
Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses
Areas of distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The areas of the medial branches are in black, those of the lateral in red
A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots.
Distribution of the cutaneous nerves. Ventral aspect.
Distribution of the cutaneous nerves. Dorsal aspect.
The spinal cord with dura cut open, showing the exits of the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
A longer view of the spinal cord.
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Schematic diagram of cervical plexus.
Cerebrum. Inferior view. Deep dissection.
Cerebrum. Inferior view. Deep dissection.
Spinal nerves. Spinal cord and vertebral canal. Deep dissection.

A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.

Brainstem

The three distinct parts of the brainstem are colored in this sagittal section of a human brain.
3D Medical Animation Still Shot Showing Different Parts of Mid-Brain
Diagram showing the position of the colliculi. Superior shown in green and inferior in orange.
View of midbrain showing covering tectum and tegmental floor
The appearance of a cadaveric brainstem from the front, with major parts labelled
The appearance of a cadaveric brainstem from behind, with major parts labelled
The brainstem receives blood via the vertebral arteries, shown here.
A cross-section of the brainstem showing the multiple nuclei of the ten pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from it
Cross-section of the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus
Cross-section of the midbrain at the level of the inferior colliculus
Cross-section of the middle pons (at the level of cranial nerve V)
Cross-section of the inferior pons (at the level of the facial genu)
Cross-section of the rostral (superior) medulla
Cross-section of the middle medulla
Cross-section of the inferior medulla
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are labelled on this coronal section of the human brain.
thumb|3D visualization of the brainstem in an average human brain

The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.

Central canal

Cross-section through cervical spinal cord.
Cross section of central canal

The central canal (also known as spinal foramen or ependymal canal ) is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs through the spinal cord.

Meninges

Image depicting meninges around the brain
Diagram of brain layers
Diagram of section of top of brain showing the meninges and subarachnoid space
Diagram of section of spinal cord showing the meninges and spaces. Subarachnoid space coloured blue
Illustration of the work by Antonio Pacchioni Disquisitio anatomicae de durae meningis ... published in Acta Eruditorum, 1703

In anatomy, the meninges (, singular: meninx ( or ), from, adjectival: meningeal ) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.