A report on Spinal nerve

The formation of the spinal nerve from the posterior and anterior roots
Spinal nerve
Typical spinal nerve location
Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve
1. Somatic efferent.
2. Somatic afferent.
3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent.
6,7. Autonomic afferent.
Cervical nerves
Lumbar plexus and branches
Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses
Areas of distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The areas of the medial branches are in black, those of the lateral in red
A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots.
Distribution of the cutaneous nerves. Ventral aspect.
Distribution of the cutaneous nerves. Dorsal aspect.
The spinal cord with dura cut open, showing the exits of the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
A longer view of the spinal cord.
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Schematic diagram of cervical plexus.
Cerebrum. Inferior view. Deep dissection.
Cerebrum. Inferior view. Deep dissection.
Spinal nerves. Spinal cord and vertebral canal. Deep dissection.

Mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.

- Spinal nerve
The formation of the spinal nerve from the posterior and anterior roots

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Overall

The human vertebral column and its regions

Vertebral column

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Part of the axial skeleton.

Part of the axial skeleton.

The human vertebral column and its regions
Numbering order of the vertebrae of the human spinal column
Anatomy of a vertebra
A thoracic spine X-ray of a 57-year-old male.
Lateral lumbar X-ray of a 34-year-old male
The spinal cord nested in the vertebral column.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Spina Bifida
Diagram showing normal curvature of the vertebrae from childhood to teenage
Surface projections of organs of the torso. The transpyloric line is seen at L1
A vertebra (diameter 5 mm) of a small ray-finned fish

The spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes.

The spinal cord (in yellow) connects the brain to nerves throughout the body.

Spinal cord

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Long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column .

Long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column .

The spinal cord (in yellow) connects the brain to nerves throughout the body.
Part of human spinal cord. 1 – central canal; 2 – posterior median sulcus; 3 – gray matter; 4 – white matter; 5 – dorsal root + dorsal root ganglion; 6 – ventral root; 7 – fascicles; 8 – anterior spinal artery; 9 – arachnoid mater; 10 – dura mater
Diagram of the spinal cord showing segments
A model of segments of the human spine and spinal cord, nerve roots can be seen extending laterally from the (not visible) spinal cord.
Spinal cord seen in a midsection of a five-week-old embryo
Spinal cord seen in a midsection of a 3 month old fetus
Spinal cord tracts.
Spinal Cord Sectional Anatomy. Animation in the reference.
Diagrams of the spinal cord.
Cross-section through the spinal cord at the mid-thoracic level.
Cross-sections of the spinal cord at varying levels.
Cervical vertebra
A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots.
The spinal cord with dura cut open, showing the exits of the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves.
A longer view of the spinal cord.
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Projections of the spinal cord into the nerves (red motor, blue sensory).
Cross-section of rabbit spinal cord.
Cross section of adult rat spinal cord stained using Cajal method.
An overview of the spinal cord.
Sagittal section of pig vertebrae showing a section of the spinal cord.
The base of the brain and the top of the spinal cord
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view.
Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection
Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection.
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection.
Spinal cord
Medulla spinalis of 8-week-old human embryo

The nerve roots then merge into bilaterally symmetrical pairs of spinal nerves.

The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Ventral ramus labeled at lower left.)

Ventral ramus of spinal nerve

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The ventral ramus (pl.

The ventral ramus (pl.

The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Ventral ramus labeled at lower left.)

rami) (Latin for branch) is the anterior division of a spinal nerve.

The human nervous system. Sky blue is PNS; yellow is CNS.

Peripheral nervous system

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One of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS).

One of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS).

The human nervous system. Sky blue is PNS; yellow is CNS.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Lumbosacral Plexus

For the rest of the body, spinal nerves are responsible for somatosensory information.

The right brachial plexus with its short branches, viewed from in front.

Brachial plexus

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The right brachial plexus with its short branches, viewed from in front.
This shows a simulated example of motorcyclist colliding with the floor at an angle, which may damage the brachial plexus nerves. The photo shows how head and shoulder are extremely separated, which may stretch or even tear the nerves in the between area. Protective gear can help prevent nerve damage by providing extra support on the opposite side of the head to prevent over-stretching the neck.
The brachial plexus surrounds the brachial artery.
Nerves in the infraclavicular portion of the right brachial plexus in the axillary fossa.
The outermost (distal) part of the brachial plexus shown from a dissected cadaveric specimen.
Brachial plexus
Mind map showing branches of brachial plexus
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection.
Diagram of the brachial plexus using colour to illustrate the contributions of each nerve root to the branches.
The brachial plexus, including all branches of the C5-T1 ventral primary rami. Includes mnemonics for learning the plexus's connections and branches.
Mixed fibres of a spinal nerve

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1).

Plan of lumbar plexus.

Lumbar plexus

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Web of nerves in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the larger lumbosacral plexus.

Web of nerves in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the larger lumbosacral plexus.

Plan of lumbar plexus.
Lumbar plexus after dissection
Schematic diagram of the lumbar plexus

It is formed by the divisions of the first four lumbar nerves (L1-L4) and from contributions of the subcostal nerve (T12), which is the last thoracic nerve.

Nerves (yellow) in the arm

Nerve

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Enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system.

Enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system.

Nerves (yellow) in the arm
Cross-section of a nerve
Micrograph demonstrating perineural invasion of prostate cancer. H&E stain.

Nerve cells (often called neurons) are further classified as sensory, motor, or mixed nerves.

Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses.

Sacral plexus

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Nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis.

Nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis.

Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses.
Sacral plexus
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses.
A schematic depiction.
diagram of the Sacral plexus

the anterior division of the first sacral nerve

Sacrum, pelvic surface

Sacrum

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Large, triangular bone at the base of the spine that forms by the fusing of the sacral vertebrae (S1–S5) between ages 18 and 30.

Large, triangular bone at the base of the spine that forms by the fusing of the sacral vertebrae (S1–S5) between ages 18 and 30.

Sacrum, pelvic surface
Dorsal surface
Lateral surface
Image of a female pelvis seen anteriorly, sacrum at centre.
Lateral surfaces of sacrum and coccyx.
Base of sacrum.
Median sagittal section of the sacrum.
Left levator ani from within.
The posterior divisions of the sacral nerves.
Sacrum. Pelvic surface.
Sacrum. Dorsal surface.

The sacrum is a complex structure providing support for the spine and accommodation for the spinal nerves.

The plan of the cervical and brachial plexuses.

Cervical spinal nerve 8

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The plan of the cervical and brachial plexuses.
Cervical spinal nerve 8

The cervical spinal nerve 8 (C8) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment.