Spleen

splenicsplenetichilumspleensDiaphragmatic surface of spleenSplenic hilumAnomalies of spleenhilum of the spleenspleen diseasespleen diseases
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.wikipedia
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White pulp

splenic lymphoid nodulesMalpighian bodies of the spleenMalpighian corpuscle
The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation.
White pulp is a histological designation for regions of the spleen (named because it appears whiter than the surrounding red pulp on gross section), that encompasses approximately 25% of splenic tissue.

Red pulp

Red Pulp Macrophagesplenic pulpSplenic red pulp
A study published in 2009 using mice found that the red pulp of the spleen forms a reservoir that contains over half of the body's monocytes.
The red pulp of the spleen is composed of connective tissue known also as the cords of Billroth and many splenic sinusoids that are engorged with blood, giving it a red color.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver.
The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta via the celiac plexus, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and also from the spleen and pancreas.

Mononuclear phagocyte system

reticuloendothelialmononuclear phagocytic systemLymphoreticular
As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent red blood cells (erythrocytes).
The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and they accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent red blood cells (erythrocytes). The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the immune system.
The spleen acts as a reservoir of red blood cells, but this effect is somewhat limited in humans.

Monocyte

monocytesmonocyticmononuclear
A study published in 2009 using mice found that the red pulp of the spleen forms a reservoir that contains over half of the body's monocytes.
In an adult human, half of the monocytes are stored in the spleen.

Splenic artery

lienal artery
Near the middle of the spleen is a long fissure, the hilum, which is the point of attachment for the gastrosplenic ligament and the point of insertion for the splenic artery and splenic vein.
The splenic artery or lienal artery is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
Below this it is in contact with the tail of the pancreas.
The longest part of the pancreas, the body, stretches across behind the stomach, and the tail of the pancreas ends adjacent to the spleen.

Splenic vein

lienal veinveinsplenic
Near the middle of the spleen is a long fissure, the hilum, which is the point of attachment for the gastrosplenic ligament and the point of insertion for the splenic artery and splenic vein.
The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas.

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
The gastric surface is directed forward, upward, and toward the middle, is broad and concave, and is in contact with the posterior wall of the stomach.
These include the pancreas, spleen, left kidney, left suprarenal gland, transverse colon and its mesocolon, and the diaphragm.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
In humans the spleen is purple in color and is in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
The spleen, and organs of the urinary system including the kidneys, and adrenal glands also lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava.

Germinal center

germinal centersgerminal centregerminal centres
The germinal centers are supplied by arterioles called penicilliary radicles.
Germinal centers or germinal centres (GCs) are sites within secondary lymphoid organs – lymph nodes and the spleen where mature B cells proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity) during a normal immune response to an infection.

Human iron metabolism

iron metabolismironiron homeostasis
It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron.
Of this, about 2.5 g is contained in the hemoglobin needed to carry oxygen through the blood (around 0.5 mg of iron per mL of blood), and most of the rest (approximately 2 grams in adult men, and somewhat less in women of childbearing age) is contained in ferritin complexes that are present in all cells, but most common in bone marrow, liver, and spleen.

Marginal zone

zone
They are produced by IgM memory B cells (a subtype of B cells) in the marginal zone of the spleen.
The marginal zone is the region at the interface between the non-lymphoid red pulp and the lymphoid white-pulp of the spleen.

Splenomegaly

enlarged spleenhypersplenismspleen
Enlargement of the spleen is known as splenomegaly.
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
These monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart after myocardial infarction), turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing.
The spleen contains half the body's monocytes in reserve ready to be deployed to injured tissue.

Cords of Billroth

Billroth's cordssplenic cords
The Cords of Billroth (also known as splenic cords or red pulp cords) are found in the red pulp of the spleen between the sinusoids, consisting of fibrils and connective tissue cells with a large population of monocytes and macrophages.

Tuftsin

Two enzymes are needed to release tuftsin from immunoglobulin G. First, the spleen enzyme tuftsin-endocarboxypeptidase nicks the heavy chain at the Arg-Glu bond (292-293).

Gaucher's disease

Gaucher diseaseGaucher’s diseasePseudo-Gaucher disease
It may be caused by sickle cell anemia, sarcoidosis, malaria, bacterial endocarditis, leukemia, pernicious anemia, Gaucher's disease, leishmaniasis, Hodgkin's disease, Banti's disease, hereditary spherocytosis, cysts, glandular fever (mononucleosis or 'Mono' caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus), and tumours.
The disorder is characterized by bruising, fatigue, anemia, low blood platelet count and enlargement of the liver and spleen, and is caused by a hereditary deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (also known as glucosylceramidase), which acts on glucocerebroside.

Foregut

fore-gutforegut developmentforegut tube
However, it still shares the same blood supply—the celiac trunk—as the foregut organs.

Infectious mononucleosis

mononucleosisglandular fevermono
It may be caused by sickle cell anemia, sarcoidosis, malaria, bacterial endocarditis, leukemia, pernicious anemia, Gaucher's disease, leishmaniasis, Hodgkin's disease, Banti's disease, hereditary spherocytosis, cysts, glandular fever (mononucleosis or 'Mono' caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus), and tumours.
The liver or spleen may also become swollen, and in less than one percent of cases splenic rupture may occur.

Hilum (anatomy)

hilumhilarhilus
Near the middle of the spleen is a long fissure, the hilum, which is the point of attachment for the gastrosplenic ligament and the point of insertion for the splenic artery and splenic vein.

Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths

Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
These monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart after myocardial infarction), turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing.
They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node.

Heme

haemheme grouphaeme
The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver.
Degradation begins inside macrophages of the spleen, which remove old and damaged (senescent) erythrocytes from the circulation.