Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

spontaneously infected
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection.wikipedia
68 Related Articles

Ascites

ascitic fluidBulging flanksChylous ascites
It is specifically an infection of the ascitic fluid – an increased volume of peritoneal fluid. Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.
Complications can include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
Ascites is most commonly a complication of cirrhosis of the liver.
The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

Paracentesis

peritoneocentesisAbdominocentesisdraining the fluid
The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis, a sampling of the peritoneal fluid taken from the peritoneal cavity.

Hepatorenal syndrome

kidney malfunction and increased liver insufficiency
Other life-threatening complications such as kidney malfunction and increased liver insufficiency can be triggered by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is the infection of ascites fluid, is the most common precipitant of HRS in cirrhotic individuals.

Hepatic encephalopathy

hepatic comaencephalopathyhepatic
In cases of acute or chronic liver failure SBP is one of the main triggers for hepatic encephalopathy, and where there is no other clear causal indication for this, SBP may be suspected.
If there is ascites, a diagnostic paracentesis (removal of a fluid sample with a needle) may be required to identify spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).

Peritoneal fluid

peritoneal
It is specifically an infection of the ascitic fluid – an increased volume of peritoneal fluid. The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis, a sampling of the peritoneal fluid taken from the peritoneal cavity.
Bacteria and white blood cells, when present in a patient with a history of ascites (usually due to cirrhosis) is highly suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Enterococcus

enterococcienterococcalEnterococcus faecium
Common gram-positive bacteria identified include species of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus.
Important clinical infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections (see Enterococcus faecalis), bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Proton-pump inhibitor

proton pump inhibitorproton pump inhibitorsproton-pump inhibitors
H2 antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors are medications that decrease or suppress the secretion of acid by the stomach.
Concerns have also been raised about spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in older people taking PPIs and in people with irritable bowel syndrome taking PPIs; both types of infections arise in these populations due to underlying conditions and it is not clear if this is a class effect of PPIs.

Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection.

Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneum
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
Ascites is most commonly a complication of cirrhosis of the liver.

Peritoneal cavity

peritonealperitoneal cavities
The diagnosis of SBP requires paracentesis, a sampling of the peritoneal fluid taken from the peritoneal cavity.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
If the fluid contains large numbers of white blood cells known as neutrophils (>250 cells/µL), infection is confirmed and antibiotics will be given, without waiting for culture results.

Neutrophil

neutrophilsneutrophil granulocyteneutrophilic
If the fluid contains large numbers of white blood cells known as neutrophils (>250 cells/µL), infection is confirmed and antibiotics will be given, without waiting for culture results.

Microbiological culture

culturepure culturecultured
If the fluid contains large numbers of white blood cells known as neutrophils (>250 cells/µL), infection is confirmed and antibiotics will be given, without waiting for culture results.

Human serum albumin

albuminhuman albuminserum albumin
In addition to antibiotics, infusions of albumin are usually administered.

Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Chills

rigorsrigorchill
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Tenderness (medicine)

tendernesstenderAbdominal tenderness
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Malaise

a general sense of feeling unwellgeneral discomfortfeeling generally unwell
Signs and symptoms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) include fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and tenderness, general malaise, altered mental status, and worsening ascites.

Liver failure

hepatic failureliverhepatic
In cases of acute or chronic liver failure SBP is one of the main triggers for hepatic encephalopathy, and where there is no other clear causal indication for this, SBP may be suspected.