A report on Sri Lanka

Ptolemy's world map of Ceylon, first century CE, in a 1535 publication
The Avukana Buddha statue, a 12 m standing Buddha statue from the reign of Dhatusena of Anuradhapura, 5th century
The Sigiriya ("Lion Rock"), a rock fortress and city, built by King Kashyapa (477–495 CE) as a new more defensible capital. It was also used as a Buddhist monastery after the capital was moved back to Anuradhapura.
The seated image of Gal Vihara in Polonnaruwa, 12th century, which depicts the dhyana mudra, shows signs of Mahayana influence.
A 17th-century engraving of Dutch explorer Joris van Spilbergen meeting with King Vimaladharmasuriya in 1602
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy, the last ruling native Sri Lankan monarch
British appointed Kandyan chief headmen in 1905.
The formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule, with the opening of the first parliament at Independence Square
Topographic map of Sri Lanka
A view of Sripada from Maskeliya
Sri Lanka map of Köppen climate classification
The Sri Lankan elephant is one of three recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant. The 2011 elephant census estimated a population of 5,879.
The Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) is an endangered subspecies of leopard native to Sri Lanka.
Maha rath mala (Rhododendron arboreum ssp. zeylanicum) is a rare sub-species of Rhododendron arboreum found in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.
The old Sri Lankan Parliament building, near the Galle Face Green. It now serves as the Presidential Secretariat's headquarters.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Colombo
President J. R. Jayewardene gifting a baby elephant to US President Ronald Reagan in 1984
Development of real GDP per capita, 1820 to 2018
A proportional representation of Sri Lanka exports, 2019
The Colombo World Trade Center in Colombo. Presidential Secretariat, Bank of Ceylon and Galadhari Hotel are also visible in the image.
Sri Lanka's most widely known export, Ceylon tea, which ISO considers the cleanest tea in the world in terms of pesticide residues. Sri Lanka is also the world's 2nd largest exporter of tea.
Sri Lanka's population, (1871–2001)
Development of life expectancy
The Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology is a research institute specialising in the field of nanotechnology.
Hindu devotees engaging in Kavadi at a temple in Vavuniya
Sri Lankan rice and curry
Female dancers in traditional Kandyan dress
The Nelum Pokuna Mahinda Rajapaksa Theatre was constructed as a major venue for the performing arts
A Low Country drummer playing the traditional Yak Béra
R. Premadasa Stadium in Colombo.
A 1595 map of Sri Lanka created by Dutch cartographer Petrus Plancius

Island country in South Asia.

- Sri Lanka

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.

The area of Sri Lanka claimed by the LTTE as Tamil Eelam, where the vast majority of the fighting took place

Sri Lankan Civil War

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The area of Sri Lanka claimed by the LTTE as Tamil Eelam, where the vast majority of the fighting took place
Seven pillars surround the site of the blast, at the Rajiv Gandhi Memorial in Sriperumbudur
LTTE Sea Tiger boat patrolling during the peace
Red area shows the approximate areas of Sri Lanka controlled by the LTTE and the Government, as of December 2005.
Civilians being displaced as a result of the Sri Lanka Army's military offensive. January 2009.
Canadian Tamils block University Avenue, Toronto demonstrating against the Sri Lankan forces.
Shelter built from tarp and sticks. Pictured are displaced persons from the civil war in Sri Lanka
DFID-funded UN IDP camp near Vavuniya: the Menik Farm camp, June 2009
De-mining at Jaffna Fort in December 2019.

The Sri Lankan Civil War (ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ සිවිල් යුද්ධය; இலங்கை உள்நாட்டுப் போர்) was a civil war fought in Sri Lanka from 1983 to 2009.


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Grey pottery with engravings, Arikamedu, 1st century CE
The Varaha cave bas relief at Mahabalipuram from 7th century CE
Tiruvannamalai city and Annamalaiyar temple, Tamil architecture and culture influenced much of Southeast Asia between the 8th to 13th century CE.
The Tamil Chola Empire at its height, 1030 CE
Megalithic burial urns or jar found in Pomparippu, North Western, Sri Lanka dated to at least five to two centuries before the Common Era. These are similar to Megalithic burial jars found in South India and the Deccan during a similar time frame.
Ma. Po. Si and Rajaji in center, convention of the Mylai Tamil Sangam, early 1900s
Tamil girls dressed in traditional attire, ca. 1870, Tamil Nadu, India.
Distribution of Tamil speakers in South India and Sri Lanka (1961)
Tamil woman in traditional attire, c. 1880, Sri Lanka.
Batu Caves temple built by Tamil Malaysians in c. undefined 1880s
Sage Agathiyar, one of the contributors of old Tamil literature
Meenakshi Amman temple, dedicated to Goddess Meenakshi, tutelary deity of Madurai city
Erwadi durgah in Ramanathapuram district is a major pilgrimage shrine of the Tamil Muslims.
The Om symbol in Tamil script
Aiyanar, guardian folk deity of Tamil Nadu
Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni, Tamil Nadu
Katar, Tamil dagger which was popular throughout South Asia
Dancing Siva or Nataraja, example of Chola Empire bronze
The Brihadeshswara Temple at Thanjavur, also known as the Great Temple, built by Rajaraja Chola I
Bharatanatyam dancers
Megalithic sarcophagus burial from Tamil Nadu
Virampatnam jewelry from funerary burial, 2nd century BCE, Tamil Nadu
Souttoukeny jewelry, 2nd century BCE, Tamil Nadu
Map of ancient oceanic trade, and ports of Tamilakam
Tamiḻakam during Sangam Period

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (தமிழர், in the singular or தமிழர்கள், in the plural), or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry mainly to India’s southern state of Tamil Nadu, union territory of Puducherry and to Sri Lanka.

Kingdom of Kandy

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The Kingdom of Kandy (1689–1796) Dutch control areas
The Ella Gap – typical of the mountainous and densely forested terrain of the Kingdom of Kandy
Portuguese governor Pedro Lopes de Sousa welcomes Kusumasana Devi a.k.a Dona Catharina during the campaign of Danture, 1594
The Kingdom of Kandy at its greatest territorial extent, 1520s
The growth and impact of the kingdom of Sitawaka, 1521–1594
King Vimaladharmasurya I receiving Joris van Spilbergen, 1603
Dutch Colombo, based on an engraving of circa 1690
Frederick North, first British Governor of Ceylon
Kandyan chiefs Ehelepola, Molligoda and Kapuvatta with the British agent John D'Oyly.
The Kandyan Convention document.
King Rajasinha II of Kandy, with an Adigar at his feet.
The Royal Palace of Kandy
Queen's Bathing Pavilion
17th-18th Century flintlock Sinhalese Long Gun also known as a "Bondikula". The lock is situated to the left side and the bifurcated butt is a characteristic unique to Sinhalese guns. The gun has been extensively ornamented with silver and ivory panels carved with floral patterns.
Temple of the Tooth is the focal point of Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Interior of the Temple of the Tooth, Kandy. Successive kings expanded and improved the temple throughout the Kandyan kingdom's existence.

The Kingdom of Kandy was a monarchy on the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.


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The Mahāvaṃsa ("Great Chronicle", Sinhala: මහාවංශය, Pali: Mahāvaṃsa - written in the 5th century CE) is the meticulously kept historical chronicle of Sri Lanka written in the style of an epic poem written in the Pali language.


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Coat of arms of Colombo from the Dutch Ceylon era, depicting a mango tree
Dutch engraving of Colombo in about 1680
Map of Colombo, c. 1914
The formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule at Independence Square.
The Beira Lake at night
The Seema Malakaya of the Gangarama Temple in the Beira Lake in the Slave Island area, is one of many religious structures in Colombo
Colombo Municipal Council
Bambalapitiya area
Map of Colombo showing its administrative districts.
Colombo City is the hub of Sri Lanka's economic activity
Arcade Independence Square shopping mall
Galle Face Green, where many major events take place, is a favourite location for many. It is in close proximity to many of the major hotels. Formerly, it was the site of the city's racecourse, golf course and the cricket field
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is located in Colombo
Colombo's streets at night
Container handling at Colombo Port.
Commuter rail within the city
Ratmalana Airport
Colombo Skyline – 2017
Royal College Colombo, the oldest public school in the city.
The Murugan Hindu temple in the Slave Island area
The VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) logo of Dutch East India Company on the gates of Wolvendaal Church
Vesak Thorana in Colombo
Christmas Celebrations in Colombo
Colombo Racecourse ground
The historical Cargills & Millers building continues as the headquarters of Cargills
The Old Parliament Building near the Galle Face Green, now the Presidential Secretariat
The Neoclassical style Colombo National Museum
Colombo's colonial heritage is visible throughout the city, as in the historical Wolvendaal Church, established by the Dutch in 1749
The Nelum Pokuna Theatre at night
British era Legislative Council Building, Colombo fort. Today it houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Town Hall of Colombo at night, it is the headquarters of the Colombo Municipal Council and the office of the Mayor of Colombo
The Edwardian style old General Post Office
A Test match between Sri Lanka and England at the SSC Cricket Ground, Colombo, March 2001
St. Lucia's Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Colombo
Beira Lake and southern side of the Gangaramaya Temple
The Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque is one of the oldest Mosques in Colombo
Cathedral of Christ the Living Saviour is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Colombo
The statue of Sir Charles Henry de Soysa at De Soysa-Liptons Circus, is the first of a native, in Colombo.<ref>Ceylon, the Land of Eternal Charm, Ali Foad Toulba (Asian Educational Services) p.237 {{ISBN|9788120614949}}</ref>
The Viharamahadevi Park, (formerly Victoria Park) is the oldest and largest park in Colombo
Built in 1857, the Old Colombo Lighthouse also known as the Colombo Fort Clock Tower is the oldest clock-tower
The BMICH Conference Hall
A clear view of the ocean off Colombo over a green field of grass

Colombo (කොළඹ, ; கொழும்பு, ) is the executive and judicial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population.

Anuradhapura Kingdom

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Kingdom of Anuradhapura Principality of Malaya (Maya Rata) Principality of Ruhuna (Ruhunu Rata)
The Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi today, to which the Kingdom was offered by Devanampiya Tissa.
Ambassador from Sri Lanka (獅子國 Shiziguo) to China (Liang dynasty), Wanghuitu (王会图), circa 650 CE
Subdivisions of Anuradhapura Kingdom
Ancient coins belonging to the Anuradhapura period on display at the museum of Anuradhapura.
Bronze imitation of a Roman coin, Sri Lanka, 4th-8th century
Typical layout of the tank, settlements and paddy fields in a traditional dry zone village.
Gilded bronze statue of the Bodhisattva Tara, dated to the 8th century, found in the eastern coast of Sri Lanka
The Koneswaram Hindu temple was constructed in the Anuradhapura Kingdom era.
The Sigiriya frescoes are the oldest and best preserved paintings belonging to the Anuradhapura period.
King Dutthagamani constructed Ruwanweli Seya, the first large stupa, beginning a practice which would be followed by subsequent rulers.
A small and now unused ancient irrigation lake in Anuradhapura.
The Kandalama Reservoir, believed to have been constructed during the latter stage of the kingdom, is one of many tanks that form an intricate network.
The water for the Kuttam Pokuna was obtained through underground conduits

The Anuradhapura Kingdom (Sinhala: අනුරාධපුර රාජධානිය, translit: Anurādhapura Rājadhāniya, Tamil: அனுராதபுர இராச்சியம்), named for its capital city, was the first established kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka related to the Sinhalese people.

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

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TL: Ground Troops, TR:Air Force, BL: Black Tigers (Suicide Bombers) and BR: Naval Forces
LTTE leaders at Sirumalai camp, Tamil Nadu, India in 1984 while they are being trained by RAW (from L to R, weapon carrying is included within brackets) – Lingam; Prabhakaran's bodyguard (Hungarian AK), Batticaloa commander Aruna (Beretta Model 38 SMG), LTTE founder-leader Prabhakaran (pistol), Trincomalee commander Pulendran (AK-47), Mannar commander Victor (M203) and Chief of Intelligence Pottu Amman (M 16).
An LTTE bicycle infantry platoon north of Kilinochchi in 2004
A mother of a dead LTTE cadre raises the Tamil Eelam flag on Maaveerar Naal 2002 in Germany
LTTE women's wing marching in a parade.
Kilinochchi District court ín LTTE-administered Tamil Eelam
A LTTE Sea Tiger fast attack fiberglass boat passing a Sri Lankan freighter sunk by the Sea Tigers just north of the village of Mullaitivu, North-eastern Sri Lanka
Kopay memorial for fallen Tamil combatants

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE; தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள், දෙමළ ඊළාම් විමුක්ති කොටි; also known as the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.

Distribution of Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka by DS Division according 2012 census.

Sri Lankan Tamils

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Distribution of Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka by DS Division according 2012 census.
Indian Tamils are classed as a separate ethnic group.
The Koneswaram Hindu Temple in Trincomalee, mentioned in Saiva literature circa 700 CE by Thirugnana Sambanthar
The Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, one of the main Kovil in Sri Lanka.
A group of American Ceylon Mission missionaries in Jaffna (circa 1890)
A 1910 postcard image of a Sri Lankan Tamil girl
A Hindu gentleman of North Ceylon (1859)
Territorial claims for the state of Tamil Eelam by various Tamil groups
Tamil rebels in a pick-up truck in Killinochchi in 2004
Sri Kamadchi Ampal temple in Hamm, Germany, built primarily by Sri Lankan Tamil expatriates
Sri Lankan-Canadian Tamil children in traditional clothes in Canada

Sri Lankan Tamils ( or ), also known as Ceylon Tamils or Eelam Tamils, are Tamils native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.

Jaffna Kingdom

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Pandyan tribute paying territories circa 1250, includes what ultimately became the Jaffna kingdom in Sri Lanka
The royal family. First from the right is Cankili I
Mantri Manai – The surviving remains of the minister's quarters that was reused by the Portuguese and Dutch colonials
A Setu coin
Reverse of the Setu coin with Setu legend in Tamil
Nallur Kandaswamy temple – One of the royal temples of Nallur, the capital.
Yamun Eri filled with water from the Yamuna river.
Baobab, native to East Africa, introduced in Neduntheevu during the 7th century by Arabian sailors
Cankilian Thoppu – Facade of the palace belonging to the last king Cankili II.

The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு, යාපනය රාජධානිය; 1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryachakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula.