Srivijaya

Srivijaya EmpireSrivijaya KingdomSrivijayanSrivijayan EmpireSri VijayaSumatracentral Indonesian empireJavanese influenceMalay kingMalay kingdom of the same
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.wikipedia
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Indonesian language

IndonesianIndonesiaBahasa Indonesia
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the language used by Srivijayan empire.

Indonesia

🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
It has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with Chinese dynasties and Indian kingdoms.

Thalassocracy

thalassocraticthalassocraciesmaritime trading culture
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Traditional thalassocracies seldom dominate interiors, even in their home territories: Phoenician Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, or Srivijaya and Majapahit in Southeast Asia.

Palembang

Sultanate of Palembang Palembang Batoe-Radja
The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682.
Palembang was once the capital city of Srivijaya, a powerful Buddhist kingdom which ruled many parts of the western archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes especially in the Strait of Malacca.

Dutch East Indies

DutchNetherlands East IndiesEast Indies
In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies.
Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states (the most important were Srivijaya and Majapahit).

Telaga Batu inscription

Telaga Batu
The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions.
Telaga Batu inscription is a 7th-century Srivijayan inscription discovered in Sabokingking, 3 Ilir, Ilir Timur II, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, around the 1950s.

Talang Tuo inscription

Talang Tuwostone inscription
The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions.
The Talang Tuo inscription is a 7th-century Srivijaya inscription discovered by Louis Constant Westenenk on 17 November 1920, on the foot of Bukit Seguntang near Palembang.

Southeast Asia

south-east AsiaSoutheastSouth East Asia
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged.

Pala Empire

PalaPala dynastyPalas
Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate.

Melayu Kingdom

MalayuMelayuMalayu Dharmasraya
The term Malayu is Javanese-Sundanese term to refer Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refer to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago.
The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671, and states was "absorbed" by Srivijaya by 692, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua.

Javanese people

JavaneseJavaJavanese culture
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.
The centre of Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok (r. 929-947) moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River in the 10th century CE. The move was most likely caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.

Majapahit

Majapahit EmpireMajapahit KingdomIndonesia
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.
He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

Khmer Empire

KhmerAngkorAngkorian
It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa.
After learning of Suryavarman's alliance with Rajendra Chola, the Tambralinga kingdom requested aid from the Srivijaya King Sangrama Vijayatungavarman.

Jambi

Jambi ProvinceJambi Malays
However, in 2013, archaeological research led by the University of Indonesia discovered several religious and habitation sites at Muaro Jambi, suggesting that the initial centre of Srivijaya was located in Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi on the Batang Hari River, rather than on the originally-proposed Musi river.
Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond.

Zabag kingdom

ZabagLegend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer KingZabaj
Also, regional accounts that some might be almost tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer King also provides a glimpse of the kingdom.
The established studies by several historians associated this kingdom with Srivijaya and thought its location was somewhere in Sumatra, Java or Malay Peninsula.

South Sumatra

SouthSouth SumateraSouthern Sumatra
By 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin had shown that the centre of Srivijaya was along the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang and Sabokingking (situated in what is now Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia).
Around 7th century AD, an ancient Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was established in an area known today as Palembang.

Surat Thani Province

Surat ThaniSuratSurat Thani Province, Thailand
Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and that the Chaiya District in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, was the centre of Srivijaya.
Founded in the 3rd century, the Srivijaya kingdom dominated the Malay Peninsula until the 13th century.

Champa

ChamChampa KingdomChams
It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa.
Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalaysian
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Indonesian or Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.
This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra.

Sanfotsi

SanfoqiSan Fo Qi
Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.
In 1918, George Cœdès concluded that Chinese forms of San-fo-ts'i (Sanfoqi), Fo-ts'i (Foqi), Fo-che (Foshi), Che-li-fo-che (Shilifoshi), which correspond to Arabic Sribuza and can be reconstructed as Śribhoja, are names referring to the Srivijaya empire, located in Palembang, South Sumatra, in present-day Indonesia.

Tambralinga

MadamalingamPolingSathing Phra
Soon after this, Pan Pan and Tambralinga, which were located north of Langkasuka, came under Srivijayan influence.
Tambralinga was an ancient kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula that at one time came under the influence of Srivijaya.

Sri Jayanasa of Srivijaya

Sri JayanasaJayanasaDapunta Hyang
It mentions that Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa came from Minanga Tamwan.
Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa was the first Maharaja of Srivijaya and thought to be the dynastic founder of Kadatuan Srivijaya.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengaliVanga
Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate.

Shailendra dynasty

SailendraSailendra dynastyShailendra
This unique period is known as the Srivijayan episode in Central Java, when the monarch of Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java, for some period, and the Srivijaya Kingdom in Sumatra.

Lampung

Lampung ProvinceLampongLampung I
According to the Kota Kapur inscription discovered on Bangka Island, the empire conquered most of southern Sumatra and the neighbouring island of Bangka, as far as Palas Pasemah in Lampung.
It is possible that Lampung was part of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, with its regional capital in Jambi, which controlled most of Southeast Asia until the 11th century.