Srivijaya

Srivijaya EmpireSriwijayaSri VijayaSrivijayanSrivijaya KingdomSrivijayan EmpireSriwijaya EmpireSumatracentral Indonesian empireJavanese influence
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.wikipedia
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Thalassocracy

thalassocraciesthalassocraticmaritime trading culture
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Examples of this are the Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage of the Mediterranean; and the Austronesian states of Srivijaya and Majapahit of Island Southeast Asia.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
It has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

Palembang

Palembang, IndonesiaPalembang, South SumatraPalembangese
The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682.
It was once the capital city of Srivijaya, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that ruled many parts of the western Indonesian Archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes, especially in the Strait of Malacca.

Dutch East Indies

Netherlands East IndiesDutch IndiesDutch
In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies.
(The most important were Srivijaya and Majapahit.) The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512.

Telaga Batu inscription

Telaga Batu
The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions.
Telaga Batu inscription is a 7th-century Srivijayan inscription discovered in Sabokingking, 3 Ilir, Ilir Timur II, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, around the 1950s.

Southeast Asia

South East AsiaSouth-East AsiaSoutheast Asian
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged.

Talang Tuo inscription

Talang Tuwo inscriptionTalang Tuwostone inscription
The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions.
The Talang Tuo inscription is a 7th-century Srivijaya inscription discovered by Louis Constant Westenenk on 17 November 1920, on the foot of Bukit Seguntang near Palembang.

Pala Empire

PalaPala dynastyPalas
Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate.

Javanese people

JavaneseJavaJavanese culture
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.
The move was most likely caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.

Melayu Kingdom

MalayuMelayuJambi Kingdom
The term Malayu is a Javanese-Sundanese term referring to the Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from the historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refers to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago.
The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671, and states was "absorbed" by Srivijaya by 692, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua.

Riau

Riau ProvinceEmblem of RiauRiau Indonesian
Soekmono, on the other hand, argues that Palembang was not the capital of Srivijaya and suggests that the Kampar River system in Riau where the Muara Takus temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.
Therefore, Riau was under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms such as the Melayu Kingdom and the Srivijaya empire.

Majapahit

Majapahit EmpireMajapahit KingdomKing of Majapahit
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.
He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-language
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.
This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra.

Khmer Empire

KhmerAngkorAngkorian
It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa.
After learning of Suryavarman's alliance with Rajendra Chola, the Tambralinga kingdom requested aid from the Srivijaya King Sangrama Vijayatungavarman.

South Sumatra

South SumateraSouthSouth Sumatra Province
By 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin had shown that the centre of Srivijaya was along the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang and Sabokingking (situated in what is now Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia).
From the 7th century to the late 14th century, the province was the seat of the Buddhist Srivijaya Empire, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

Jambi

Jambi ProvinceDjambiEmblem of Jambi
However, in 2013, archaeological research led by the University of Indonesia discovered several religious and habitation sites at Muaro Jambi, suggesting that the initial centre of Srivijaya was located in Muaro Jambi Regency, Jambi on the Batang Hari River, rather than on the originally-proposed Musi river.
Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond.

Zabag kingdom

JavakaZabagSavakan
Also, regional accounts that some might be preserved and retold as tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer King also provide a glimpse of the kingdom.
The established studies by several historians associated this kingdom with Srivijaya and thought its location was somewhere in Sumatra, Java or Malay Peninsula.

Empire

imperialempiresimperial power
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
In the 7th century, Maritime Southeast Asia witnessed the rise of a Buddhist thallasocracy, the Srivijaya Empire, which thrived for 600 years and was succeeded by the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit Empire that ruled from the 13th to 15th centuries.

Champa

Kingdom of ChampaChamChampa Kingdom
It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa.
Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago.

Tambralinga

MadamalingamPolingSathing Phra
Soon after this, Pan Pan and Tambralinga, north of Langkasuka, came under Srivijayan influence.
Tambralinga was an ancient kingdom located on the Malay Peninsula that at one time came under the influence of Srivijaya.

Sanfotsi

SanfoqiSan Fo Qi
Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.
In 1918, George Cœdès concluded that Chinese forms of San-fo-ts'i (Sanfoqi), Fo-ts'i (Foqi), Fo-che (Foshi), Che-li-fo-che (Shilifoshi), which correspond to Arabic Sribuza and can be reconstructed as Śribhoja, are names referring to the Srivijaya empire, located in Palembang, South Sumatra, in present-day Indonesia.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate.

Sri Jayanasa of Srivijaya

Dapunta Hyang Sri JayanasaDapunta HyangSri Jayanasa
It mentions that Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa came from Minanga Tamwan.
Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa was the first Maharaja / Emperor of Srivijaya and thought to be the dynastic founder of Kadatuan Srivijaya.

Maritime Silk Road

maritime networkmaritime routesmaritime trade
In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods-based economy.
Tang records indicate that Srivijaya, founded at Palembang in 682 CE, rose to dominate the trade in the region around the straits and the South China Sea emporium by controlling the trade in luxury aromatics and Buddhist artifacts from West Asia to a thriving Tang market.

Singhasari

Singhasari KingdomSingasaricomplete list
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.
In the year 1275, the ambitious king Kertanegara, the fifth ruler of Singhasari who had been reigning since 1254, launched a peaceful naval campaign northward towards the weak remains of the Srivijaya in response to continuous Ceylon pirate raids and Chola kingdom's invasion from India which conquered Srivijaya's Kedah in 1025.