Staining

stainstainedstainshistological stainbiological stainhistologic stainhistological stainingstainablebiological stainscell staining
Staining is a technique used to enhance contrast in samples, generally at the microscopic level.wikipedia
523 Related Articles

Tissue (biology)

tissuetissuesbiological tissue
Stains may be used to define biological tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissue), cell populations (classifying different blood cells), or organelles within individual cells.
The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope.

Gram stain

Gram stainingGram-variableGram
* For example, crystal violet stains only Gram-positive bacteria in Gram staining.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative).

Counterstain

counterstained
A counterstain is stain that makes cells or structures more visible, when not completely visible with the principal stain.
A counterstain is a stain with colour contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained structure easily visible using a microscope.

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positiveGram positivegram-positive bacterium
* For example, crystal violet stains only Gram-positive bacteria in Gram staining.
This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test.

Vital stain

vital stainingCell viability
In vivo staining (also called vital staining or intravital staining) is the process of dyeing living tissues. Those stains excluded by the living cells but taken up by the already dead cells are called vital stains (e.g. trypan blue or propidium iodide for eukaryotic cells).
A vital stain in a casual usage may mean a stain that can be applied on living cells without killing them.

Supravital staining

supravital stainsupravitalsupravital dye
Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains (e.g. New Methylene Blue and brilliant cresyl blue for reticulocyte staining).
Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.

Propidium iodide

Propidiumpropidium iodine
Those stains excluded by the living cells but taken up by the already dead cells are called vital stains (e.g. trypan blue or propidium iodide for eukaryotic cells).
Propidium iodide (or PI) is a fluorescent intercalating agent that can be used to stain cells and nucleic acids.

Microscope

microscopesmicroscopicmicroscopically
Staining is a technique used to enhance contrast in samples, generally at the microscopic level.
During the last decades of the 20th century, particularly in the post-genomic era, many techniques for fluorescent staining of cellular structures were developed.

Reticulocyte

reticulocytesreticulocyte countimmature red blood cells
Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains (e.g. New Methylene Blue and brilliant cresyl blue for reticulocyte staining).
They are called reticulocytes because of a reticular (mesh-like) network of ribosomal RNA that becomes visible under a microscope with certain stains such as new methylene blue and Romanowsky stain.

Dye

dyesdyestuffsynthetic dyes
Stains and dyes are frequently used in histology (the study of tissue under the microscope) and in the medical fields of histopathology, hematology, and cytopathology that focus on the study and diagnoses disease at a microscopic level.
They are also used as pH indicators and as biological stains.

H&E stain

H&Ehematoxylin and eosinHaematoxylin and eosin stain
Haematoxylin and eosin staining is frequently used in histology to examine thin tissue sections.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (often abbreviated as: H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal tissue stains used in histology.

Papanicolaou stain

Pap stainPapanicolaou technique
Papanicolaou staining, or Pap staining, is a frequently used method for examining cell samples from various bodily secretions.
Papanicolaou stain (also Papanicolaou's stain and Pap stain) is a multichromatic (multicolored) cytological staining technique developed by George Papanicolaou in 1942.

Periodic acid–Schiff stain

PAS stainperiodic acid-Schiff stainPAS
Periodic acid-Schiff staining is used to mark carbohydrates (glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycans).
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.

Haematoxylin

hematoxylin
Haematoxylin stains cell nuclei blue, while eosin stains cytoplasm, connective tissue and other extracellular substances pink or red. It uses a combination of haematoxylin, Orange G, eosin Y, Light Green SF yellowish, and sometimes Bismarck Brown Y.
This naturally derived dye has been used as a histologic stain, ink and as a dye in the textile and leather industry.

New methylene blue

Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains (e.g. New Methylene Blue and brilliant cresyl blue for reticulocyte staining).
It is used as a stain and as an antimicrobial agent.

Masson's trichrome stain

Masson's trichromeMasson chrome stainingtrichrome
Masson's trichrome is (as the name implies) a three-colour staining protocol.
Masson's trichrome is a three-colour staining protocol used in histology.

Gel electrophoresis

gelelectrophoresiselectrophoresis gel
Biological staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry, and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel electrophoresis.
After the electrophoresis is complete, the molecules in the gel can be stained to make them visible.

Biological Stain Commission

This means that samples of the manufacturer's batch have been tested by an independent body, the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), and found to meet or exceed certain standards of purity, dye content and performance in staining techniques.
The BSC is a 95-year-old organization well known to many thousands of scientists, worldwide but especially in N America, who buy BSC-certified stains for staining microscopic preparations and for making selective culture media for bacteria.

Leishman stain

Leishman's stainLeishman
Common variants include Wright's stain, Jenner's stain, May-Grunwald stain, Leishman stain and Giemsa stain.
Leishman stain, also known as Leishman's stain, is used in microscopy for staining blood smears.

Orange G

It uses a combination of haematoxylin, Orange G, eosin Y, Light Green SF yellowish, and sometimes Bismarck Brown Y.
Orange G also called C.I. 16230, Acid Orange 10, or orange gelb is a synthetic azo dye used in histology in many staining formulations.

Carbol fuchsin

Castellani's paint
The stains used are the red coloured Carbol fuchsin that stains the bacteria and a counter stain such as Methylene blue
Carbol fuchsin, carbol-fuchsin, or carbolfuchsin, is a mixture of phenol and basic fuchsin, used in bacterial staining procedures.

Light Green SF

Light Green SF yellowishlissamine green dyes
It uses a combination of haematoxylin, Orange G, eosin Y, Light Green SF yellowish, and sometimes Bismarck Brown Y.
It is used in histology for staining collagen; for that purpose it is a standard dye in North America.

Eosin

eosine yellowish-(ys)bromo acidseosin y
Haematoxylin stains cell nuclei blue, while eosin stains cytoplasm, connective tissue and other extracellular substances pink or red.
In the field of histology, Eosin Y is the form of eosin used most often as a histologic stain.

Sudan IV

Scarlet RedSolvent Red 24
Sudan III, Sudan IV, Oil Red O, Osmium tetroxide, and Sudan Black B are often used.
Sudan IV (C 24 H 20 N 4 O) is a lysochrome (fat-soluble dye) diazo dye used for the staining of lipids, triglycerides and lipoproteins on frozen paraffin sections.

Coomassie Brilliant Blue

Coomassie BlueCoomassieBrilliant Blue G
Coomassie blue (also brilliant blue) nonspecifically stains proteins a strong blue colour.
Coomassie Brilliant Blue is the name of two similar triphenylmethane dyes that were developed for use in the textile industry but are now commonly used for staining proteins in analytical biochemistry.