Stamford Raffles

Sir Stamford RafflesRafflesThomas Stamford RafflesSir Thomas Stamford RafflesThomas Stamford Bingley RafflesSir Thomas RafflesBritish colonistsInvasion of JavaRaffles coat of armsRaffles, T.S.
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies (1811–1816) and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (1818–1824), best known for his founding of modern Singapore and the British Malaya.wikipedia
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Singapore

Republic of SingaporeSingapore CitySingaporean
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies (1811–1816) and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (1818–1824), best known for his founding of modern Singapore and the British Malaya.
Although its history stretches back millennia, modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British East India Company.

Olivia Mariamne Devenish

Olivia Mariamne RafflesOlivia
Nine years later, in 1804, the 23-year-old Raffles married Olivia Mariamne Devenish, a widow 10 years his senior, who was formerly married to Jacob Cassivelaun Fancourt, an assistant surgeon in Madras who had died in 1800.
Olivia Mariamne Devenish (16 February 1771 – 26 November 1814), was the spouse of Thomas Stamford Raffles, vice governor of Java (1811–1816), from 1805 to 1814.

Thomas Otho Travers

At this time he also made the acquaintance of Thomas Otho Travers, who would accompany him for the next twenty years.
Thomas Otho Travers (25 September 1785 – 9 July 1844) was a soldier, a friend of (and later aide-de-camp to) Stamford Raffles, and author of The Journal of Thomas Otho Travers 1813-1820, published more than a century after his death.

British Malaya

MalayaMalayanBritish rule
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies (1811–1816) and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (1818–1824), best known for his founding of modern Singapore and the British Malaya.
Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles, with a great deal of help from Major William Farquhar.

Dutch East Indies

Netherlands East IndiesDutch IndiesDutch
He mounted a military expedition against the Dutch and French in Java, in the Dutch East Indies.
In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including the Spice islands in 1810 and Java the following year - Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.

Invasion of Java (1811)

invasion of JavaJavaJava Expedition
He mounted a military expedition against the Dutch and French in Java, in the Dutch East Indies. He was heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire.
Stamford Raffles, an official of the British East India Company who had been forced to leave the Dutch settlement at Malacca when the Netherlands were annexed, suggested to Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, that Java and the other Dutch possessions should be captured.

Borobudur

BorobodurBorobudur TempleCandi Borobudur
The first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C. Cornelius.
Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians.

Sophia Hull

Sophia RafflesLady Raffles
On 22 February he married his second wife, Sophia Hull, and later set sail to Bencoolen (present day Bengkulu in Indonesia) to take up his new post with his new wife.
Sophia Hull, Lady Raffles (5 May 1786 – 12 December 1858) was the second wife of Sir Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern Singapore.

List of Governors of the Dutch East Indies

Governor-GeneralGovernor-General of the Dutch East IndiesGovernors general
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS (6 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies (1811–1816) and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (1818–1824), best known for his founding of modern Singapore and the British Malaya.

Bogor

BuitenzorgBogor, IndonesiaBogor, West Java
He took his residence at Buitenzorg and despite having a small subset of Britons as his senior staff, kept many of the Dutch civil servants in the governmental structure.
The head of the British administration Stamford Raffles moved the administrative center from Batavia to Buitenzorg and implemented new and more efficient management techniques.

The History of Java

History of Javabook on Javan history
He also wrote The History of Java (1817).
History of Java is a book written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, and published in 1817.

Thomas Raffles

At the publication of the book, he also stopped using the name "Thomas", preferring to use his middle name, "Stamford", possibly to avoid confusion amongst his associates with Sir Thomas Sevestre or his cousin Thomas Raffles who bore the same name.
The only son of William Raffles (died 9 November 1825), a solicitor, he was born in Princes Street, Spitalfields, London, on 17 May 1788; he was first cousin to Stamford Raffles.

Philip Dundas

Philip
He started with a post, as assistant secretary, under the Honourable Philip Dundas, the new Governor of Penang.
The newly appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, arrived at the newly created Presidency of the British East India Company, between 18 and 24 September 1805, together with his Council and the subordinate officials, including his Deputy Secretary, Stamford Raffles, who would form his new government.

Prambanan

Prambanan TempleCandi PrambananPrambanan Temple Compounds
The first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C. Cornelius.
In 1811 during the short-lived British occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Colin Mackenzie, a surveyor in the service of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, came upon the temples by chance.

Java

Java IslandJavaneseJava, Indonesia
He mounted a military expedition against the Dutch and French in Java, in the Dutch East Indies. He was heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire.
In 1811, Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of the British Empire, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Governor.

East India Company

British East India CompanyHonourable East India CompanyEnglish East India Company
In 1795, at the age of 14, Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company, the trading company that shaped many of Britain's overseas conquests.
Minto appointed Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles as lieutenant governor of Java.

Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824

Anglo-Dutch Treaty18241824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty
The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.
The British establishment of Singapore on the Malay Peninsula in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles exacerbated the tension between the two nations, especially as the Dutch claimed that the treaty signed between Raffles and the Sultan of Johor was invalid and that the Sultanate of Johor was under the Dutch sphere of influence.

Johor

JohoreJohor Darul Ta'zimState of Johor
A few days later, the formal treaty was signed by a man who claimed to be the "lawful sovereign of the whole of territories extending from Lingga and Johor to Mount Muar."
Another important archaeological find was the ancient lost city of Kota Gelanggi, which was discovered by following trails described in an old Malay manuscript once owned by Stamford Raffles.

William Farquhar

Colonel FarquharWilliam
Major William Farquhar, the British Resident of Malacca, had been attempting to negotiate commercial treaties with the local chiefs of the Riau Archipelago, especially before Raffles's arrival.
During his tenure here he assisted in missions around the region, including the British invasion of Java led by Governor-General Baron Minto and Sir Stamford Raffles in August 1811.

Jan Willem Janssens

JanssensGen. J.W. JanssensGeneral Janssens
The previous Dutch governor, Herman Willem Daendels, had built a well-defended fortification at Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara), and at the time, the governor, Jan Willem Janssens (who, coincidentally, had surrendered to the British five years earlier at the Cape Colony), mounted a brave but ultimately futile defence at the fortress.
However, the French soldiers under his command lacked well-trained officers and as the British laid siege to the fortress, Janssens personally led a futile defense and was forced to retreat to Buitenzorg (later the place of residence of the British governor-general, Sir Stamford Raffles.

Batavia, Dutch East Indies

BataviaBatavia/Jakarta Batavia
It was at this point that he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia.
Under British rule, Daendels was replaced by Stamford Raffles.

Pagaruyung Kingdom

PagaruyungMalayapuraPagar Ruyung
Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau.
Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, and by then it had been burned to the ground three times.

British Bencoolen

BencoolenBenkulenBencoolen Presidency
On 22 February he married his second wife, Sophia Hull, and later set sail to Bencoolen (present day Bengkulu in Indonesia) to take up his new post with his new wife.
On 15 October 1817, Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen.

Temenggong Abdul Rahman

Abdul Rahman
Johore also no longer had any control of the area, so contact was made with the Temenggong Abdul Rahman.
By the time Sir Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapura on 29 January 1819, there were an estimated 1,000 people there.

John Crawfurd

CrawfurdJohn Crawfurd's Siam missionCrawfurd trade mission
Eventually Calcutta appointed John Crawfurd, who had followed Raffles for over twenty years, as the new Resident of Singapore, while Captain William Gordon MacKenzie took over Bencoolen.
In Penang he met Stamford Raffles for the first time.