A report on Stamford Raffles

Portrait by George Francis Joseph, c. 1817
The memorial to Olivia Mariamne Raffles, Raffles's first wife, erected by him along the Kanarielaan in the National Botanical Gardens (now the Bogor Botanical Gardens). Raffles re-landscaped these gardens, which were established in 1744 in Buitenzorg (now Bogor), West Java.
Territory of Bencoolen (pink)
Stamford Raffles
Statue of Sir Stamford Raffles in Singapore, based on the original by Thomas Woolner
The Plan of the Town of Singapore, also known more commonly as the Jackson Plan or Raffles Town Plan
A view of Singapore from the sea, sketched by Lt. Philip Jackson shortly before Raffles's departure in 1823. Found amongst documents belonging to Raffles.
Arms of Stamford Raffles
Fragrant nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Durian (Durio zibethinus)
Oriental bay owl (Phodilus badius)
Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense)
Blue-backed parrot (Tanygnathus everetti)
Langsat (Lansium parasiticum)
Otter civet (Cynogale bennettii)
Crested fireback (Lophura ignita)

British statesman who served as the Lieutenant-Governor of the Dutch East Indies between 1811 and 1816, and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen between 1818 and 1824.

- Stamford Raffles
Portrait by George Francis Joseph, c. 1817

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Dutch East Indies

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Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including the Spice islands in 1810 and Java the following year—Thomas Stamford Raffles became lieutenant governor.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, and included the re-discovery of Borobudur.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

In 1811, Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of the British Empire, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's governor.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

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9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians.

Singapore

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Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Its contemporary era began in 1819 when Stamford Raffles established Singapore as an entrepôt trading post of the British Empire.

Yogyakarta

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Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Kotagede, former capital of the Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta sultanate palace's main pavilion
The Taman Sari Water Castle, the former royal garden of the Sultan of Yogyakarta
Administration of Yogyakarta City
Borobudur is the world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.
Wayang (shadow puppets) in Yogyakarta style, a scene from Irawan's Wedding. Mid-20th century, from the University of Hawaii Department of Theatre and Dance.
Kawung Motif in batik from Yogyakarta.
Kotagede silverwork.
Mandala Krida Stadium
Yogyakarta railway station
Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta.
Main building of Panti Rapih Hospital.

On 20 June 1812, Sir Stamford Raffles led a 1,200-strong British force to capture the Yogyakarta kraton.

Johor

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State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

The Royal Crown in Istana Bukit Serene, Johor, dubbed the "Jewel"
Map of the Dominion of Johor, 1727
A painting by John Edmund Taylor showing people in rowboats on the Johor River in the evening seen from Changi in Singapore, July 1879
Johor Bahru town during the British period, c. 1920
Indian troops embark onto boats during an invasion exercise in southern Johore, 13 November 1941.
Three Australian 8th Division members firing on Japanese Type 95 Ha-Gō tanks on the Muar-Parit Sulong road during the Battle of Muar, 18 January 1942
View of the blown up Johor–Singapore Causeway with the gap visible in the middle, which delayed the Japanese conquest of Singapore for over a week to 8 February 1942
Additional Japanese troops advancing through an iron bridge in Labis which had been destroyed by the retreating British forces down the Malayan Peninsula, 22 January 1942
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war against the Japanese, 1945
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945
Onn Jaafar (left), the Menteri Besar of Johor and founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) with Dr. W. Linehan (right), C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs during the Federation of Malaya Agreements in 1948
Dato' Jaafar Muhammad Building in Kota Iskandar, which houses the office of the Menteri Besar of Johor
The Johor Royal Family in 2015
The Sultan Ismail Building houses the Johor State Legislative Assembly in Kota Iskandar, Iskandar Puteri.
A district and land office in Segamat District.
A district council office in Mersing District.
A municipal council office in Kluang District.
A FELDA office in Kota Tinggi District.
Sultan Ibrahim leading the Johor Military Forces (JMF) during the King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920
Map of the disputed island and rocks
Johor is located in southern Malay Peninsula as seen from NASA satellite image.
Forest trees of Johor in tropical rainforest climate
A female tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) in Panti Forest
Heron in a swamp of Johor
Crocodile sanctuary in Pasir Gudang.
Shipping container in Tanjung Pelepas Port
Theme park tourism such as the Legoland Malaysia Resort (pictured) has been a major part of the state economy since their opening in 2012.
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.
A farmers' market in Pontian Kechil, Pontian District.
Puteri Harbour Family Park landscapes
Johor Bahru city centre at dusk
A village in Johor with a telephone line
Tebrau Highway leading to the city centre, part of Federal Route 3
Johor Bahru Sentral railway station in Johor Bahru.
Senai International Airport in Senai.
Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal in Iskandar Puteri.
Sultanah Aminah Hospital, the main government hospital in the state
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) chancellory building.
Southern University College main gate in Skudai, Iskandar Puteri.
Johor residents with families near the end of the year
Girls from the aboriginal people of Johor
Multilingual sign in Malay, English and Chinese at a workshop in Kota Tinggi.
The Johor Heritage Foundation building in the state capital
Zapin performance in a school in Batu Pahat
Chingay parade celebration in the capital city as part of Chinese New Year festivities in 2018
Mee bandung in Johor
The Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium was the home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim until 2019.
The new home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim since 2020.
Mount Ophir
Rawa Island beach
Sunrise over a palm oil plantation
Waterfall in Mount Belumut

Another important archaeological find was the ancient lost city of Kota Gelanggi, which was discovered by following trails described in an old Malay manuscript once owned by Stamford Raffles.

Java, in Southeast Asia

Invasion of Java (1811)

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Successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Java, in Southeast Asia
British army landing at Cilincing, Java.
Batavia, capital of Dutch East Indies, with citadel in the background.
Captain Robert Maunsell capturing French Gunboats off the mouth of the Indramayo, July 1811
Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.

Stamford Raffles, an official of the British East India Company who had been forced to leave the Dutch settlement at Malacca when the Netherlands were annexed, suggested to Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, that Java and the other Dutch possessions should be captured.

Prambanan Temple Compounds

Prambanan

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9th-century Hindu temple compound in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimūrti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Shiva).

9th-century Hindu temple compound in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimūrti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Shiva).

Prambanan Temple Compounds
Shivagrha inscription dated 856 CE.
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva inside the garbagriha of the main temple.
The Prambanan temple compound with Merapi volcano in the background.
Lithograph of Prambanan ruin in 1852.
The ruins of Shiva temple of Prambanan c. 1895.
Restoration of Prambanan Shiva temple in February 1940.
Indonesian 5 rupiah 1957 banknotes depicting North Apit temple of Prambanan.
Ramayana dance performance in Prambanan.
Prambanan night view from the Trimurti open-air stage.
A fallen pinnacle from the damaged Prambanan temple
Javanese traditional ceremony held in Prambanan temple area.
The map of Prambanan temple compound, shows concentric mandala layout
An architectural model of the Prambanan temple complex; originally there were 240 temples in this temple compound
Main shrine dedicated to Shiva of Prambanan temple complex
The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple.
Statue of Nandi bull inside Nandi temple or central vahana temple.
An Apit temple
A Perwara temple
The cross-section of Shiva temple
Ravana kidnapping Sita while the Jatayu on the left tried to help her. Prambanan bas-relief
Prambanan panel, lion in niche flanked by two kalpataru trees each flanked by a pair tof kinnaras or animals.
The multitude of temples scattered around Prambanan inspired the local legend of Rara Jonggrang
Temples and archaeological sites in Prambanan Plain
Sewu buddhist temple within Prambanan archaeological park connected with local Loro Jonggrang legend
Image of Lokapala god on Shiva temple
Image of Devata and Apsaras
Corner antefix carved as a Kala head
Balarama is prying apart the jaws of Kaliya.
Krishna tears apart the legs of his wicked uncle, Kamsa.
The main temple dedicated to Shiva
Temple of Vishnu
Temple of Brahma
Temple of Nandi
Brahma statue
Vishnu statue
The Ganesha statue

In 1811 during the short-lived British occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Colin Mackenzie, a surveyor in the service of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, came upon the temples by chance.

Malaya in 1922:

Straits Settlements

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The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.

The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.

Malaya in 1922:
The Port of Penang in George Town during the 1910s
Malaya in 1922:
Malacca, 1860–1900
Penang from Tie Sin's Tower, 1860–1900
Evolution of Malaysia
Malacca business street, 1912
Silver coin: 1 Straits dollar, 1903

Singapore became the site of a British trading post in 1819 after its founder, Stamford Raffles, successfully involved the East India Company in a dynastic struggle for the throne of Johore.