Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin ChineseStandard Mandarinmodern ChinesePutonghuaChinese (Mandarin)Chinese MandarinStandardStandard Mandarin Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.wikipedia
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Pinyin

pHanyu PinyinPīnyīn
Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching).
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

Singapore

🇸🇬Republic of SingaporeSingaporean
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and the rest of Southeast Asia; and
There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual and English serves as the nation's lingua franca.

Languages of Singapore

four official languagesofficial languages4
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Hokkien (Min Nan) briefly emerged as a lingua franca among the Chinese, but by the late 20th century they had been eclipsed by Mandarin.

Beijing dialect

Beijing MandarinBeijingBeijing Mandarin dialect
Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Before the 19th century, the standard was based on the Nanjing dialect, but later the Beijing dialect became increasingly influential, despite the mix of officials and commoners speaking various dialects in the capital, Beijing.
It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese, which is the official language in the People's Republic of China and Republic of China and one of the official languages in Singapore.

Bopomofo

zhuyinZhuyin FuhaoMandarin Phonetic Symbols
Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching).
It is also used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseChinese language
Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese.
The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese.

Written vernacular Chinese

vernacular Chinesebaihuavernacular
Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese.
Since the early 1920s, this modern vernacular form has been the standard style of writing for speakers of all varieties of Chinese throughout mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore as the written form of Modern Standard Chinese.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In the 1930s, Standard Chinese was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation", originally simply meant "Chinese language", and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages.
Standard Chinese (Pǔtōnghuà/Guóyǔ/Huáyǔ) is a standardized form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. It was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. In Singapore, the government has heavily promoted a "Speak Mandarin Campaign" since the late 1970s, with the use of other Chinese varieties in broadcast media being prohibited and their use in any context officially discouraged until recently.
Standard Chinese takes its phonology from the Beijing dialect, with vocabulary from the Mandarin group and grammar based on literature in the modern written vernacular.

Beijing

PekingBeijing, ChinaBeiping
Before the 19th century, the standard was based on the Nanjing dialect, but later the Beijing dialect became increasingly influential, despite the mix of officials and commoners speaking various dialects in the capital, Beijing.
The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.

Taiwanese Hokkien

TaiwaneseHokkienHoklo
During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition (2000–2008), Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien, Hakka and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
The government subsequently promoted Mandarin and banned the public use of Taiwanese as part of a deliberate political repression, especially in schools and broadcast media.

Old National Pronunciation

an artificial pronunciationhybrid pronunciation
A Dictionary of National Pronunciation was published in 1919, defining a hybrid pronunciation that did not match any existing speech.
The Old National Pronunciation was the system established for the phonology of standard Chinese as decided by the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation from 1913 onwards, and published in the 1919 edition of the Guóyīn Zìdiǎn (國音字典, "Dictionary of National Pronunciation").

Zhonghua minzu

ChineseChinese nationChinese people
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation", originally simply meant "Chinese language", and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages.
While Qing rulers adopted the Han Chinese imperial model and considered their state as Zhongguo ("中國", the term for "China" in modern Chinese), and the name "China" was commonly used in international communications and treaties (such as the Treaty of Nanking), domestically however, some Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen initially described the Manchus as "foreign invaders" to be expelled, and planned to establish a Han nation-state modelled closely after Germany and Japan.

Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation

A Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was convened with delegates from the entire country.
The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was the organization established by Beiyang government in 1912 select ancillary phonetic symbols for Mandarin, (Zhuyin was the product) and set the standard Guoyu pronunciation of basic Chinese characters.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard Chinese is the de facto official language of Taiwan.

Classical Chinese

literary ChineseclassicalChinese
It was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese.
Some believe Classical Chinese literature, especially poetry, sounds better when read in certain varieties that are believed to be closer to older pronunciations, such as Cantonese or Southern Min, because the rhyming is often lost due to sound shifts in Mandarin.

Taiwan independence movement

independenceTaiwan independenceRepublic of Taiwan
During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition (2000–2008), Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien, Hakka and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
This vision was represented through a number of symbols such as the use of Taiwanese in opposition to the school-taught Mandarin Chinese.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order.
A retired IPA system, sometimes still encountered, traces the shape of the tone (the pitch trace) before the syllable, where a stress mark would go (e.g., ). For a more concrete example, take the Hanyu Pinyin syllable [sa] used in Standard Chinese, after applying the diacritics it becomes easier to identify more specific rising and falling tones: (high peaking tone), (low level tone), etc. It was used in combination with stress marks to indicate intonation as well, as in English.

Speak Mandarin Campaign

deliberate policy to encourage MandarinPinyinizationprogramme to promote Mandarin
In Singapore, the government has heavily promoted a "Speak Mandarin Campaign" since the late 1970s, with the use of other Chinese varieties in broadcast media being prohibited and their use in any context officially discouraged until recently.
The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC; ) is an initiative by the government of Singapore to encourage the Singaporean Chinese population to speak Standard Mandarin Chinese, one of the four official languages of Singapore.

Language shift

shiftshiftedshifting
In practice, however, due to Standard Chinese being a "public" lingua franca, other Chinese varieties and even non-Sinitic languages have shown signs of losing ground to the standard.
Generally the shift is in favour of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), but in the province of Guangdong the cultural influence of nearby Hong Kong has meant local dialects and languages are being abandoned for Cantonese instead and in cities such as Zhongshan, Shunde, Nanhai District, Panyu and Dongguan, younger native residents mostly communicate in Cantonese, instead of their mother-tongue.

Putonghua Proficiency Test

With the fast development of the country and the massive internal migration in China, the standard Putonghua Proficiency Test has quickly become popular.
The Putonghua Proficiency Test or Putonghua Shuiping Ceshi (PSC) is an official test of spoken fluency in Standard Chinese intended for native speakers of Chinese languages.

Guangdong National Language Regulations

2012 Anti-Cantonese regulationsGovernment of Guangdong promoted a new rule that took effect on 1 March 2012
There is no explicit official intent to have Standard Chinese replace the regional varieties, but local governments have enacted regulations (such as the Guangdong National Language Regulations) which "implement" the national law by way of coercive measures to control the public use of regional spoken varieties and traditional characters in writing.
The Guangdong National Language Regulations is a set of laws enacted by the Guangdong provincial government in the People's Republic of China in 2012 to promote the use of Standard Mandarin Chinese in broadcast and print media at the expense of the local standard Cantonese and other related dialects.

Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and the rest of Southeast Asia; and
Mandarin is used in Chinese schools catering to the Chinese Filipino community.

China

🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.