Standard Oil

Standard Oil CompanyStandard Oil TrustStandard Oil Co.Standard Oil of New JerseyCarter OilStandard Oil CoStandard Oil Development Company Standard Oil Photography Project34 successor entitiesantitrust majorities
Standard Oil Co.wikipedia
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John D. Rockefeller

RockefellerJohn Davison RockefellerJohn D Rockefeller
Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world of its time. Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, and Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife.
Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company in 1870.

ExxonMobil

Exxon MobilExxon CorporationExxon-Mobil
Its successors such as ExxonMobil or Chevron are still among the companies with the largest revenues in the world.
It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon (formerly the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey) and Mobil (formerly the Standard Oil Company of New York).

Florida East Coast Railway

Florida East Coast RailroadFlorida East CoastFEC
Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, and Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway.
Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Flagler.

Henry Huttleston Rogers

Henry H. RogersH. H. RogersHenry Huddleston Rogers
Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, and Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway.
A descendant of the original Mayflower Pilgrims, he made his fortune in the oil refining business, becoming a leader at Standard Oil.

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States

Standard Oil Company of New Jersey v. United StatesStandard Oil Co. of N. J. v. United Statesbroken up
Its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in a landmark case, that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly.
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anticompetitive actions.

William Rockefeller

William Avery Rockefeller Jr.WilliamWilliam Avery Rockefeller, Jr.
Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, and Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife.
He was a co-founder of Standard Oil along with his older brother John Davison Rockefeller (1839–1937).

Virginian Railway

VirginianThe Virginian Railway CompanyVirginian Railroad
Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, and Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway.
Early in the 20th century, William Nelson Page, a civil engineer and coal mining manager, joined forces with a silent partner, industrialist financier Henry Huttleston Rogers (a principal of Standard Oil and one of the wealthiest men in the world), to develop the Deepwater Railway, a modest 85-mile long short line railroad to access untapped bituminous coal reserves in some of the most rugged sections of southern West Virginia.

Oliver Burr Jennings

Emma Brewster JenningsOliver B. Jennings
Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, and Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife.
Oliver Burr Jennings (June 3, 1825 – February 12, 1893) was an American businessman and one of the original stockholders in Standard Oil.

Stephen V. Harkness

Stephen Vanderburgh HarknessS. V. HarknessStephen
Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, and Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife.
He invested as a silent partner with John D. Rockefeller, Sr. in the founding of Standard Oil.

Monopoly

monopoliesmonopolisticmonopolist
Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, marketing company, and monopoly.
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) and Standard Oil are often cited as examples of the breakup of a private monopoly by government.

Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler

Of the initial 10,000 shares, John D. Rockefeller received 2,667; Harkness received 1,334; William Rockefeller, Flagler, and Andrews received 1,333 each; Jennings received 1,000, and the firm of Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler received 1,000.
Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler was a business concern formed in 1867 in Cleveland, Ohio which was a predecessor of the Standard Oil Company.

Cleveland

Cleveland, OhioCleveland, OHCleveland Ohio
Using highly effective tactics, later widely criticized, it absorbed or destroyed most of its competition in Cleveland in less than two months and later throughout the northeastern United States. In 1885, Standard Oil of Ohio moved its headquarters from Cleveland to its permanent headquarters at 26 Broadway in New York City.
In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland.

Jabez A. Bostwick

Jabez BostwickJabez Abel Bostwick
By a secret agreement, the existing 37 stockholders conveyed their shares "in trust" to nine trustees: John and William Rockefeller, Oliver H. Payne, Charles Pratt, Henry Flagler, John D. Archbold, William G. Warden, Jabez Bostwick, and Benjamin Brewster.
Jabez Abel Bostwick (September 23, 1830 – August 16, 1892) was an American businessman who was a founding partner of Standard Oil.

Benjamin Brewster (financier)

Benjamin Brewster
By a secret agreement, the existing 37 stockholders conveyed their shares "in trust" to nine trustees: John and William Rockefeller, Oliver H. Payne, Charles Pratt, Henry Flagler, John D. Archbold, William G. Warden, Jabez Bostwick, and Benjamin Brewster.
Benjamin Brewster (June 30, 1828 – August 23, 1897) was an American industrialist, financier, and one of the original trustees of Standard Oil.

South Improvement Company

South Improvement Co.Southern Improvement Company
In 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Co. which would have allowed him to receive rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his competitors shipped.
It was created by major railroad and oil interests, and was widely seen as part of John D. Rockefeller's early efforts to organize and control the oil industry in the United States under Standard Oil.

Samuel Andrews (chemist)

Samuel Andrews
Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, and Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife.
He is best known as a partner in the oil refining firm of Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler, the major predecessor company of the Standard Oil corporate empire.

Charles Pratt

Pratt familyPrattssix Pratt estates
By a secret agreement, the existing 37 stockholders conveyed their shares "in trust" to nine trustees: John and William Rockefeller, Oliver H. Payne, Charles Pratt, Henry Flagler, John D. Archbold, William G. Warden, Jabez Bostwick, and Benjamin Brewster.
Seven years later, Pratt and Rogers agreed to join John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil.

Ida Tarbell

Ida M. TarbellIda Minerva Tarbell
One of the original "Muckrakers" was Ida M. Tarbell, an American author and journalist.
The work would contribute to the dissolution of the Standard Oil monopoly and helped usher in the Hepburn Act of 1906, the Mann-Elkins Act, the creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Clayton Antitrust Act.

Rockefeller family

RockefellersRockefellerDavid Rockefeller, Jr.
Rockefeller stated in 1910: "I think it is true that the Pratt family, the Payne–Whitney family (which were one, as all the stock came from Colonel Payne), the Harkness-Flagler family (which came into the company together) and the Rockefeller family controlled a majority of the stock during all the history of the company up to the present time."
The fortune was made in the American petroleum industry during the late 19th and early 20th centuries by John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller, primarily through Standard Oil.

A. Barton Hepburn

Alonzo Barton Hepburn
A. Barton Hepburn was directed by the New York State Legislature in 1879 to investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the state.
Prior to the committee's investigation, few knew of the size of Standard Oil's control and influence on seemingly unaffiliated oil refineries and pipelines, with only a dozen or so within Standard Oil knew the extent of company operations.

26 Broadway

Standard Oil BuildingStandard Oil Building (New York City)Standard Oil building in New York City
In 1885, Standard Oil of Ohio moved its headquarters from Cleveland to its permanent headquarters at 26 Broadway in New York City.
Standard Oil's first building on the site of 26 Broadway was built in 1885 to design specifications by architect Francis H. Kimball, when Standard Oil moved its headquarters from Cleveland, Ohio.

The Hepburn Committee

investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the stateHepburn Committee
A. Barton Hepburn was directed by the New York State Legislature in 1879 to investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the state.
Prior to the committee's investigation, few knew of the size of Standard Oil's control and influence on seemingly unaffiliated oil refineries and pipelines - Hawke (1980) cites that only a dozen or so within Standard Oil knew the extent of company operations.

The History of the Standard Oil Company

The History of Standard OilThe History of the Standard Oil CoThe History of the Standard Oil Co.
Her work was published in 19 parts in McClure's magazine from November 1902 to October 1904, then in 1904 as the book The History of the Standard Oil Co.
It is an exposé about the Standard Oil Company, run at the time by oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the richest figure in American history.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
While most companies dumped gasoline in rivers (this was before the automobile was popular), Standard used it to fuel its machines.
As late as June 1917, Standard Oil (the largest refiner of crude oil in the United States at the time) stated that the most important property of a gasoline was its volatility.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world of its time.
Many private firms, such as Carnegie's steel company and Rockefeller's Standard Oil, avoided the corporate model for this reason (as a trust).