Standard Oil

John D. Rockefeller c. 1872, shortly after founding Standard Oil
Standard Oil Articles of Incorporation signed by John D. Rockefeller, Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews, Stephen V. Harkness, and William Rockefeller
Share of the Standard Oil Company, issued May 1, 1878
Share of the Standard Oil Trust, issued January 18, 1883
Standard Oil Refinery No. 1 in Cleveland, Ohio, 1897
U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt depicted as the infant Hercules grappling with Standard Oil in a 1906 Puck magazine cartoon by Frank A. Nankivell
John D. Rockefeller sitting in the witness stand and testifying before Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, July 6, 1907
This map shows by state which company has the rights to the Standard Oil name. ExxonMobil has full international rights and continues to use the Esso name overseas. States that are gray have a dot representing their owners, but are not actively being used; ExxonMobil operates in all these states and have de facto claimed the trademark.
One of 15 Chevron stations branded as "Standard" to protect Chevron's trademark; this one is in Las Vegas, Nevada.
A combination gasoline/diesel pump at an Exxon in Zelienople, Pennsylvania selling Exxon gasoline and "Esso Diesel".
BP station with "torch and oval" Standard sign in Durand, Michigan.
BP continues to sell marine fuel under the Sohio brand at various marinas on Ohio waterways and in Ohio state parks in order to protect its rights in the Sohio and Standard Oil names. The Anderson Ferry Marina near Cincinnati, Ohio is pictured.
Station signage at an Exxon station in Columbus, Ohio featuring the Esso logo, while BP owns the rights to the Standard Oil name in Ohio.

American oil production, transportation, refining, and marketing company that operated from 1870 to 1911.

- Standard Oil

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American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.

Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil", with financial data from 2005
Socony gas station and store in Connecticut, 1916
Humble gas station in early 1970s. The chain would be rebranded to Exxon in 1973
First Exxon logo, launched in 1973. It contained the red and blue colors of the Esso, Enco and Humble brands
Exxon Building on Avenue of the Americas, sold in 1986
ExxonMobil Chairman Rex Tillerson with Vice President Dick Cheney, 2007
ExxonMobil Building. Former ExxonMobil offices in Downtown Houston were vacated in early 2015.
ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge
Map of the Yellowstone River watershed

It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon (formerly the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey) and Mobil (formerly the Standard Oil Company of New York).

Trust (business)

Large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.

The Rockefeller-Morgan Family Tree (1904), which depicts how the largest trusts at the turn of the 20th century were in turn connected to each other.
Octopus representing Standard Oil with arms wrapped around U.S. Congress and steel, copper, and shipping industries, and reaching for the White House.

In January 1882, Samuel C. T. Dodd, Standard Oil's General Solicitor, conceived of the corporate trust to help John D. Rockefeller consolidate his control over the many acquisitions of Standard Oil, which was already the largest corporation in the world.


Brand of fuel stations operating in the eastern United States, and owned by British company BP since 1998.

Amoco gas staton in Pennsylvania, 1935
Amoco station in Richmond, 1954
Amoco station on Hylan Boulevard, NY City, 1973
The first "torch & oval" logo used 1947–1960, here on a highway map
1961–1970 Standard logo. Logo bore the "AMERICAN" name outside the Indiana Standard marketing area
The final logo of the original Amoco, used until 2002

Originally part of the Standard Oil Trust, it focused on producing gasoline for the new automobile market.

Florida East Coast Railway

Class II railroad operating in the U.S. state of Florida, currently owned by Grupo México.

Three GP40-2s lead a southbound train through Lake Worth, FL.
Three GP40-2s lead a southbound train through Lake Worth, FL.
An FEC train led by a pair of ES44C4 locomotives in 2015
The Florida East Coast Railway depot in Sebastian. The structure was built in 1893.
A 1913 print advertisement extols the many advantages of traveling on the Florida East Coast Railway, the "New Route to the Panama Canal".
en route to Key West
First Florida East Coast Railway train arriving in Key West
Trains such as the Florida Special helped make the state the tourist destination it is today.
Old office buildings in St. Augustine
Florida East Coast Railway #1594 at Gold Coast Railroad Museum
Produce being loaded into FEC refrigerated cars in the 1950s
FEC202-02 with 101 & Champion 714.
FEC920-06 (local) with 415 on lead.
FEC #446, an EMD GP40-3
Historical marker
Historical marker
FEC Railway crossing at Maytown, Florida

Built primarily in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Flagler.

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States

Canadian criminal cases

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anticompetitive actions.

Henry Huttleston Rogers

American industrialist and financier.

H. H. Rogers
Henry Huttleston Rogers funeral in 1909
Mark Twain and Henry Huttleston Rogers in 1908
Handbill from 1909 tour of southern Virginia and West Virginia

He made his fortune in the oil refining business, becoming a leader at Standard Oil.

William Rockefeller Jr.

American businessman and financier.

Rockwood Hall, William Rockefeller's home in Mount Pleasant
Percy Rockefeller's Indian Mound Cottage on Jekyll Island.
The mausoleum of William Rockefeller in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery

Rockefeller was a co-founder of Standard Oil along with his elder brother John Davison Rockefeller.

Virginian Railway

Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States.

Virginian 4, the last surviving steam engine of the Virginian Railway, on display at the Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, Virginia.
Bituminous coal
An aerial shot of Victoria in 1954, looking west. It shows the turntable and roundhouse in the lower left, and the passenger station and Norfolk division offices to the right of the tracks
Map of the Virginian Railway
One of the original electric units
Virginian Railway freight depot from Ellett, now preserved at the Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, VA.

Early in the 20th century, William Nelson Page, a civil engineer and coal mining manager, joined forces with a silent partner, industrialist financier Henry Huttleston Rogers (a principal of Standard Oil and one of the wealthiest men in the world), to develop the Deepwater Railway, a modest 85-mile long short line railroad to access untapped bituminous coal reserves in some of the most rugged sections of southern West Virginia.

John D. Rockefeller

American business magnate and philanthropist.

Rockefeller in 1895
Rockefeller's birthplace in Richford, New York
Rockefeller at age 18
Rockefeller c. 1872, shortly after founding Standard Oil
Rockefeller in 1875. By then, he shaved off his sideburns, leaving his iconic mustache.
Standard Oil Trust Certificate 1896
Share of the Standard Oil Company, issued May 1, 1878
Rockefeller in 1895
The big corporations such as Standard Oil made large contributions to McKinley's presidential campaign.
Fear of monopolies ("trusts") is shown in this critique of Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company.
Rockefeller as an industrial emperor, 1901 cartoon from Puck magazine
Rockefeller c. 1902. By then, his moustache had fallen off due to alopecia.
Puck magazine cartoon: "The Infant Hercules and the Standard Oil serpents", May 23, 1906, issue; depicting U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt grabbing the head of Nelson W. Aldrich and the snake-like body of John D. Rockefeller
Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis wags his pen at John D. Rockefeller, who is sitting in the witness stand, during the Standard Oil case on July 6, 1907
Kykuit in Westchester County, New York, where Rockefeller spent his retirement. It has been home to four generations of the Rockefeller family.
The Euclid Avenue Baptist Church and its pastor, the Rev. Dr. Charles Aubrey Eaton in 1904
Rockefeller at age 80
Rockefeller with his son John Jr., 1915
Rockefeller in 1911
Central Philippine University in the Iloilo City was founded by the American Baptist missionaries through the benevolence as a legacy university of John D. Rockefeller in 1905. It is the first Baptist and second American university in Asia.
Rockefeller in 1922
Rockefeller's grave in Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland
John D. Rockefeller's painting by John Singer Sargent in 1917

Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company in 1870.

Henry Flagler

Portrait of Henry Flagler
Henry Flagler, c. 1882
Flagler’s Gingerbread house in Bellevue, Ohio
Share of the Standard Oil Company signed by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler
Standard Oil Articles of Incorporation signed by John D. Rockefeller, Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews, Stephen V. Harkness, and William Rockefeller
Henry Flagler's steam yacht Alicia, 160' long at the waterline, custom built in 1890 by Harlan and Hollingsworth of Wilmington, Delaware.
Florida East Coast Railway (FECR}, Key West Extension, express train at sea, crossing Long Key Viaduct, Florida. photo from Florida Photographic Collection
Ponce de Leon Hotel - now Flagler College
Whitehall (Now Flagler Museum)
Statue of Henry Flagler that stands in front of Flagler College (Flagler's former Ponce de León Hotel) in Saint Augustine, Florida.

Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, which was first based in Ohio.