Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialectstandard varietystandardizationstandard varietiesstandard formliterary standardstandardisednon-standard
A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is defined either as a language variety employed by a population for public communications, or as the variety of language that has undergone codification of grammar and usage.wikipedia
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Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectal
Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government; which, by processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement" and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function", acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government.
According to this definition, any variety of a given language can be classified as "a dialect", including any standardized varieties.

Prestige (sociolinguistics)

prestige dialectprestigeprestige variety
Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government; which, by processes that linguistic anthropologists call "referential displacement" and that sociolinguists call "elaboration of function", acquire the social prestige associated with commerce and government. In those ways, the standard variety acquires social prestige and greater functional importance than nonstandard dialects, which depend upon or are heteronomous with respect to the standard idiom spoken, written, and read by users for whom the standard language is the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard.
The prestige variety, in many cases, is the standard form of the language though there are exceptions, particularly in situations of covert prestige where a non-standard dialect is highly valued.

Pluricentric language

pluricentricPluricentric Serbo-Croatian languagepolycentric standard language
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard forms, often corresponding to different countries.

Variety (linguistics)

varietiesvarietylect
A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is defined either as a language variety employed by a population for public communications, or as the variety of language that has undergone codification of grammar and usage.
This may include languages, dialects, registers, styles, or other forms of language, as well as a standard variety.

Codification (linguistics)

codificationcodifiedcodify
A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is defined either as a language variety employed by a population for public communications, or as the variety of language that has undergone codification of grammar and usage. The standardization of a language usually includes efforts to stabilize the spelling of the prestige dialect, to codify usages and particular (denotative) meanings through formal grammars and dictionaries, and to encourage the public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct.
In linguistics, codification is the process of selecting, developing, and laying down (prescribing) a model for standard language usage.

Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
The standardization of a language usually includes efforts to stabilize the spelling of the prestige dialect, to codify usages and particular (denotative) meanings through formal grammars and dictionaries, and to encourage the public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct.
Most transnational languages in the modern period have a system of writing, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language.

Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian languageSerbo-CroatSerbo-Croato-Slovenian
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The standardization of a language usually includes efforts to stabilize the spelling of the prestige dialect, to codify usages and particular (denotative) meanings through formal grammars and dictionaries, and to encourage the public acceptance of the codifications as intrinsically correct.
This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to actively discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense or in reference to a standard variety.

Literary language

literaryformal writingliterary English
The term literary language is occasionally used as a synonym for standard language, especially with respect to the Slavic languages, a naming convention still prevalent in the linguistic traditions of Eastern Europe.
It can be either a non-standard dialect or standardized variety of the language.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
The scarcity of written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time thus account for the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in 1050.

Linguistic prescription

prescriptiveprescriptive grammarprescriptivist
Typically, a standard language includes a relatively fixed orthography codified in grammars and normative dictionaries, and includes linguistic features drawn from an agreed-upon collection of exemplar texts from the literature, law, and religion of a society. Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español.
Linguistic prescriptivism may aim to establish a standard language, teach what a particular society perceives as a correct form, or advise on effective and stylistically felicitous communication.

Abstand and ausbau languages

DachspracheAusbauspracheabstand
Consequently, the codified usage of speech and writing render the standard language as the more stable idiom of communication for a society than the purely spoken dialects; the codifications are also the bases for further linguistic development (Ausbau).
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
Through the educational reforms of King Alfred in the 9th century and the influence of the kingdom of Wessex, the West Saxon dialect became the standard written variety.

Nonstandard dialect

nonstandardnon-standardnon-standard dialect
In those ways, the standard variety acquires social prestige and greater functional importance than nonstandard dialects, which depend upon or are heteronomous with respect to the standard idiom spoken, written, and read by users for whom the standard language is the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard.
A nonstandard dialect or vernacular dialect is a dialect or language variety that has not historically benefited from the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.

Standard English

standardEnglishstandardized form of English
Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español.
Sociologically, as the standard language of the nation, Standard English is generally associated with education and sociolinguistic prestige, but is not inherently superior to other English dialects used by an Anglophone society.

Autonomy and heteronomy

autonomous languageheteronomousautonomous
In those ways, the standard variety acquires social prestige and greater functional importance than nonstandard dialects, which depend upon or are heteronomous with respect to the standard idiom spoken, written, and read by users for whom the standard language is the linguistic authority, as in the case of specialist terminology; moreover, the standardization of spoken forms is oriented towards the codified standard.
Where several closely related varieties are found together, a standard language is autonomous because it has its own orthography, dictionaries, grammar books and literature.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects ), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them, such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish).
A variety within a dialect continuum may be developed and codified as a standard language, and then serve as an authority for part of the continuum, e.g. within a particular political unit or geographical area.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
Different national standards, derived from a continuum of dialects, might be treated as discrete languages (along with heteronomous vernacular dialects ), even if there are mutually intelligible varieties among them, such as the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish).
In contrast, there is often significant intelligibility between different Scandinavian languages, but as each of them has its own standard form, they are classified as separate languages.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
The standard language (pyojun-eo or pyojun-mal) of both South Korea and North Korea is based on the dialect of the area around Seoul (which, as Hanyang, was the capital of Joseon-era Korea for 500 years), though the northern standard after the Korean War has been influenced by the dialect of P'yŏngyang.

Standard Macedonian

StandardStandard Macedonian languageMacedonian standard language
Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula.
Standard Macedonian or literary Macedonian (книжевен македонски јазик or македонски литературен јазик) is the standard variety of the Macedonian language and the official language of North Macedonia used in writing, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
In the 1930s, Standard Chinese was adopted, with its pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect, but with vocabulary also drawn from other Mandarin varieties and its syntax based on the written vernacular.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese (MSMC), or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is one of the official languages of China.

British English

BritishEnglishUK
In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales.
British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Modern Bulgarian
Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula.
Following the efforts of some figures of the National awakening of Bulgaria (most notably Neofit Rilski and Ivan Bogorov), there had been many attempts to codify a standard Bulgarian language; however, there was much argument surrounding the choice of norms.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Hakka and Min.
Simultaneously, especially in periods of political unity, there was a tendency to promote a central standard to facilitate communication between people from different regions.

Armenian language

ArmenianArmenian-languagearm
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.
]]Armenian is a pluricentric language, having two modern standardized forms: Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian.