# Standardized mortality ratio

**mortality ratiocompared to the normal populationgreater than in the general populationmore likely to die at younger agesMortality ratiosStandardised mortality rate**

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.wikipedia

37 Related Articles

### Mortality rate

**mortalitymortality ratesdeath rates**

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

### Epidemiology

**epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists**

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

### Ratio

**ratiosproportionratio analysis**

The SMR may be quoted as either a ratio or a percentage.

### Percentage

**percent%FG%**

The SMR may be quoted as either a ratio or a percentage.

### Random variable

**random variablesrandom variationrandom**

It has an advantage over the direct method of standardization since age-adjustment is permitted in situations where age stratification may not be available for the cohort being studied or where strata-specific data are subject to excessive random variability.

### Uncertainty

**uncertaintiesuncertainstandard uncertainty**

The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

### Confidence interval

**confidence intervalsconfidence levelconfidence**

The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

### P-value

**p''-valuepp''-values**

The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

### Statistical significance

**statistically significantsignificantsignificance level**

### Cohort study

**cohort studiescohortcohorts**

An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

### Arsenic

**AsAs 2 Arsenate**

An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

### Drinking water

**potable waterpotableclean water**

An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

### Cancer

**cancersmalignanciescancerous**

### Bladder cancer

**bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder**

An SMR for bladder cancer of 1.70 in the exposed group would mean that there is {(1.70 - 1)*100} 70% more cases of death due to bladder cancer in the cohort than in the reference population (in this case the national population, which is generally considered not to exhibit cumulative exposure to high arsenic levels).

### Life insurance

**lifelife assurancelife insurance policy**

### Life table

**mortality tablelife tablesactuarial tables**

### Women's health

**women’s healthWomen's Issueswomen**

Women who are socially marginalized are more likely to die at younger ages than women who are not.

### Capitation (healthcare)

**capitationcapitatedcapitate**

The Resource Allocation Working Party devised a formula which operated from 1977 to 1989, based on population adjusted for age and sex, weighted for morbidity by Standardized mortality ratio.

### Breast implant

**implantsbreast augmentationbreast augmentation surgery**

The follow-up study Mortality Rates Among Augmentation Mammoplasty Patients: An Update (2006) reported a decreased standardized mortality ratio and an increased risk of lung cancer death among breast implant patients, than among patients for other types of plastic surgery; the mortality rate differences were attributed to tobacco smoking.

### Vegetarianism

**vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet**

The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be 0.82, vegetarians to be 0.84, occasional meat eaters (eat meat less than once per week) to be 0.84.

### Medical statistics

**medical statisticianHealth Statisticspharmaceutical statistics**

### Furness General Hospital scandal

**Furness General Hospital maternity ward deaths investigationMorecambe Bay Investigation**

The mortality ratio for the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust (which also runs hospitals in Lancaster and Kendal) stood at 124, significantly higher than national average.

### Breast augmentation

**augmentation mammoplastybreasts augmentedAugmentation Mammaplasty**

European and North American studies reported that women who underwent augmentation mammoplasty, and any plastic surgery procedure, tended to be healthier and wealthier than the general population, before and after implantation; that plastic surgery patients had a lower standardized mortality ratio than did patients for other surgeries; yet faced an increased risk of death by lung cancer than other plastic surgery patients.