Standardized mortality ratio

mortality ratiocompared to the normal populationgreater than in the general populationmore likely to die at younger agesMortality ratiosStandardised mortality rate
In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.wikipedia
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Mortality rate

mortalitymortality ratesdeath rates
In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

Ratio

ratiosproportionratio analysis
The SMR may be quoted as either a ratio or a percentage.

Percentage

percent%FG%
The SMR may be quoted as either a ratio or a percentage.

Random variable

random variablesrandom variationrandom
It has an advantage over the direct method of standardization since age-adjustment is permitted in situations where age stratification may not be available for the cohort being studied or where strata-specific data are subject to excessive random variability.

Uncertainty

uncertaintiesuncertainstandard uncertainty
The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

Confidence interval

confidence intervalsconfidence levelconfidence
The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

P-value

p''-valuepp''-values
The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

Statistical significance

statistically significantsignificantsignificance level
The SMR may well be quoted with an indication of the uncertainty associated with its estimation, such as a confidence interval (CI) or p value, which allows it to be interpreted in terms of statistical significance.

Cohort study

cohort studiescohortcohorts
An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

Arsenic

AsAs 2 Arsenate
An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
An example might be a cohort study into cumulative exposure to arsenic from drinking water, whereby the mortality rates due to a number of cancers in a highly exposed group (which drinks water with a mean arsenic concentration of, say 10 mg) is compared with those in the general population.

Bladder cancer

bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder
An SMR for bladder cancer of 1.70 in the exposed group would mean that there is {(1.70 - 1)*100} 70% more cases of death due to bladder cancer in the cohort than in the reference population (in this case the national population, which is generally considered not to exhibit cumulative exposure to high arsenic levels).

Women's health

women’s healthWomen's Issueswomen
Women who are socially marginalized are more likely to die at younger ages than women who are not.

Capitation (healthcare)

capitationcapitatedcapitate
The Resource Allocation Working Party devised a formula which operated from 1977 to 1989, based on population adjusted for age and sex, weighted for morbidity by Standardized mortality ratio.

Breast implant

implantsbreast augmentationbreast augmentation surgery
The follow-up study Mortality Rates Among Augmentation Mammoplasty Patients: An Update (2006) reported a decreased standardized mortality ratio and an increased risk of lung cancer death among breast implant patients, than among patients for other types of plastic surgery; the mortality rate differences were attributed to tobacco smoking.

Vegetarianism

vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be 0.82, vegetarians to be 0.84, occasional meat eaters (eat meat less than once per week) to be 0.84.

Furness General Hospital scandal

Furness General Hospital maternity ward deaths investigationMorecambe Bay Investigation
The mortality ratio for the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust (which also runs hospitals in Lancaster and Kendal) stood at 124, significantly higher than national average.

Breast augmentation

augmentation mammoplastybreasts augmentedAugmentation Mammaplasty
European and North American studies reported that women who underwent augmentation mammoplasty, and any plastic surgery procedure, tended to be healthier and wealthier than the general population, before and after implantation; that plastic surgery patients had a lower standardized mortality ratio than did patients for other surgeries; yet faced an increased risk of death by lung cancer than other plastic surgery patients.