Animation of a standing wave ( red ) created by the superposition of a left traveling ( blue ) and right traveling ( green ) wave
Incident wave (blue) is fully reflected (red wave) out of phase at short-circuited end of transmission line, creating a net voltage (black) standing wave. Γ = −1, SWR = ∞.
Longitudinal standing wave
Standing waves on transmission line, net voltage shown in different colors during one period of oscillation. Incoming wave from left (amplitude = 1) is partially reflected with (top to bottom) Γ = 0.6, −0.333, and 0.8 ∠60°. Resulting SWR = 4, 2, 9.
Transient analysis of a damped traveling wave reflecting at a boundary
Example of estimated bandwidth of antenna according to the schedule VSWR by the help of the Ansys HFSS
Standing wave in stationary medium. The red dots represent the wave nodes.
Slotted line. The probe moves along the line to measure the variable voltage. SWR is the maximum divided by the minimum voltage
A standing wave (black) depicted as the sum of two propagating waves traveling in opposite directions (red and blue).
A directional wattmeter using a rotatable directional coupler element.
Electric force vector (E) and magnetic force vector (H) of a standing wave.
Standing waves in a string – the fundamental mode and the first 5 harmonics.
A standing wave on a circular membrane, an example of standing waves in two dimensions. This is the fundamental mode.
A higher harmonic standing wave on a disk with two nodal lines crossing at the center.

Impedance mismatches result in standing waves along the transmission line, and SWR is defined as the ratio of the partial standing wave's amplitude at an antinode (maximum) to the amplitude at a node (minimum) along the line.

- Standing wave ratio

The degree to which the wave resembles either a pure standing wave or a pure traveling wave is measured by the standing wave ratio (SWR).

- Standing wave
Animation of a standing wave ( red ) created by the superposition of a left traveling ( blue ) and right traveling ( green ) wave

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A standing wave. The red dots are the wave nodes

Node (physics)

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A standing wave. The red dots are the wave nodes
Pattern of two waves' interference (from up to down). The point represents the node.

A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimum amplitude.

This is indicated by a finite standing wave ratio (SWR), the ratio of the amplitude of the wave at the antinode to the amplitude at the node.