Stanislaw Ulam

Stanisław UlamStan UlamUlamStanislaw Marcin UlamUlam, S.M.S. M. UlamStanislas UlamStanislav UlamStanislaw M. UlamStanisław M. Ulam
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.wikipedia
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Nuclear pulse propulsion

MEDUSAMEDUSA concept, a nuclear explosive propelled spacecraftnuclear
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion.
It was first developed as Project Orion by DARPA, after a suggestion by Stanislaw Ulam in 1947.

John von Neumann

von NeumannJ. von NeumannNeumann, John von
In 1935, John von Neumann, whom Ulam had met in Warsaw, invited him to come to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, for a few months.
During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanisław Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb.

Monte Carlo method

Monte CarloMonte Carlo simulationMonte Carlo methods
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion.
The modern version of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was invented in the late 1940s by Stanislaw Ulam, while he was working on nuclear weapons projects at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Françoise Aron Ulam

With the aid of a cadre of female "computers", including his wife Françoise Aron Ulam, he found that Teller's "Super" design was unworkable.
Françoise Aron Ulam was the wife of Polish-American mathematician, Stanislaw Ulam.

Project Orion (nuclear propulsion)

Project OrionTo Mars by A-Bomb: The Secret History of Project OrionOrion
Ulam considered the problem of nuclear propulsion of rockets, which was pursued by Project Rover, and proposed, as an alternative to Rover's nuclear thermal rocket, to harness small nuclear explosions for propulsion, which became Project Orion.
General proposals of nuclear propulsion were first made by Stanislaw Ulam in 1946, and preliminary calculations were made by F. Reines and Ulam in a Los Alamos memorandum dated 1947.

Adam Ulam

Adam Bruno Ulam
On 20 August 1939, he sailed for the United States for the last time with his 17-year-old brother Adam Ulam.
After graduating from high school, on or around August 20, 1939, his 13-years-older brother Stanisław Ulam, a famous mathematician and key contributor to the Manhattan Project, took him to the United States to continue his education.

Thermonuclear weapon

hydrogen bombH-bombthermonuclear bomb
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion.
The design of all modern thermonuclear weapons in the United States is known as the Teller–Ulam configuration for its two chief contributors, Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, who developed it in 1951 for the United States, with certain concepts developed with the contribution of physicist John von Neumann.

Project Rover

Ulam considered the problem of nuclear propulsion of rockets, which was pursued by Project Rover, and proposed, as an alternative to Rover's nuclear thermal rocket, to harness small nuclear explosions for propulsion, which became Project Orion.
During World War II, some scientists at the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory, including Stan Ulam, Frederick Reines and Frederic de Hoffmann, speculated about the development of nuclear-powered rockets.

Kazimierz Kuratowski

KuratowskiCasimir KuratowskiKuratowski, Kazimierz
Born into a wealthy Polish Jewish family, Ulam studied mathematics at the Lwów Polytechnic Institute, where he earned his PhD in 1933 under the supervision of Kazimierz Kuratowski.
While Kuratowski associated with many of the scholars of the Lwów School of Mathematics, such as Stefan Banach and Stanislaw Ulam, and the circle of mathematicians based around the Scottish Café he kept close connections with Warsaw.

History of the Teller–Ulam design

Teller's "Super" bombSuperTeller–Ulam design
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion. He was assigned to Edward Teller's group, where he worked on Teller's "Super" bomb for Teller and Enrico Fermi.
In 1951, after still many years of fruitless labor on the "Super", a breakthrough idea from the Polish émigré mathematician Stanislaw Ulam was seized upon by Teller and developed into the first workable design for a megaton-range hydrogen bomb.

Scottish Book

Goose problem
Mathematicians of this "school" met for long hours at the Scottish Café, where the problems they discussed were collected in the Scottish Book, a thick notebook provided by Banach's wife.
Stanislaw Ulam recounts that the tables of the café had marble tops, so they could write in pencil, directly on the table, during their discussions.

Nuclear weapon design

implosion-type nuclear weaponimplosionphysics package
There, he worked on the hydrodynamic calculations to predict the behavior of the explosive lenses that were needed by an implosion-type weapon.
The design breakthrough came in January 1951, when Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam invented radiation implosion—for nearly three decades known publicly only as the Teller-Ulam H-bomb secret.

Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem

Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou experimentFermi, Pasta, Ulam, and Tsingoucomputer simulations
With Fermi, John Pasta, and Mary Tsingou, Ulam studied the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem, which became the inspiration for the field of non-linear science.
In the summer of 1953 Enrico Fermi, John Pasta, Stanislaw Ulam, and Mary Tsingou conducted numerical experiments (i.e. computer simulations) of a vibrating string that included a non-linear term (quadratic in one test, cubic in another, and a piecewise linear approximation to a cubic in a third).

Edward Teller

TellerDr. Edward TellerEde Teller
He was assigned to Edward Teller's group, where he worked on Teller's "Super" bomb for Teller and Enrico Fermi.
It included Stanislaw Ulam, Jane Roberg, Geoffrey Chew, Harold and Mary Argo, and Maria Goeppert-Mayer.

Mary Tsingou

TsingouTsingou, Mary
With Fermi, John Pasta, and Mary Tsingou, Ulam studied the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem, which became the inspiration for the field of non-linear science.
She is known for being one of the first programmers on the MANIAC computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory and for work in conjunction with Enrico Fermi, John Pasta, and Stanislaw Ulam which became the inspiration for the fields of chaos theory and scientific computing.

Scottish Café

Scottish bookScottish cafe
Mathematicians of this "school" met for long hours at the Scottish Café, where the problems they discussed were collected in the Scottish Book, a thick notebook provided by Banach's wife.
Stanislaw Ulam recounts that the tables of the café had marble tops, so they could write in pencil, directly on the table, during their discussions.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Engineer DistrictThe Manhattan ProjectManhattan District
He participated in the Manhattan Project, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons, discovered the concept of cellular automaton, invented the Monte Carlo method of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion. In October 1943, he received an invitation from Hans Bethe to join the Manhattan Project at the secret Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico.
At the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Stanislaw Ulam gave one of his students, Joan Hinton, an exam early, so she could leave to do war work.

Hugo Steinhaus

SteinhausHugo Dyonizy Steinhaussection below
Its founders were Hugo Steinhaus and Stefan Banach, who were professors at the Jan Kazimierz University.
While in Lwów, Steinhaus co-founded the Lwów School of Mathematics and was active in the circle of mathematicians associated with the Scottish cafe, although, according to Stanislaw Ulam, for the circle's gatherings, Steinhaus would have generally preferred a more upscale tea shop down the street.

Lviv

LwówLembergLvov
Ulam was born in Lemberg, Galicia, on 13 April 1909.
The most well-known were the mathematicians Stefan Banach, Juliusz Schauder and Stanisław Ulam who were founders of the Lwów School of Mathematics turning Lviv in the 1930s into the "World Centre of Functional Analysis" and whose share in Lviv academia was substantial.

Lwów School of Mathematics

groupLwow School of Mathematicsmathematicians from the Lwów School
Along with Stanisław Mazur, Mark Kac, Włodzimierz Stożek, Kuratowski, and others, Ulam was a member of the Lwów School of Mathematics.
A number of the prewar mathematicians, prominent among them Stanisław Ulam, became famous for work done in the West.

Lviv Polytechnic

Lwów PolytechnicLviv Polytechnic InstituteLwów University of Technology
Born into a wealthy Polish Jewish family, Ulam studied mathematics at the Lwów Polytechnic Institute, where he earned his PhD in 1933 under the supervision of Kazimierz Kuratowski.

Project Y

Los Alamos LaboratoryLos AlamosLos Alamos National Laboratory
In October 1943, he received an invitation from Hans Bethe to join the Manhattan Project at the secret Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico.
Nonetheless, in February 1944, Teller added Stanislaw Ulam, Jane Roberg, Geoffrey Chew, and Harold and Mary Argo to his T-1 Group.

Enrico Fermi

FermiE. FermiFermi, Enrico
He was assigned to Edward Teller's group, where he worked on Teller's "Super" bomb for Teller and Enrico Fermi.
Along with Stanislaw Ulam, he calculated that not only would the amount of tritium needed for Teller's model of a thermonuclear weapon be prohibitive, but a fusion reaction could still not be assured to propagate even with this large quantity of tritium.

Gian-Carlo Rota

RotaRota, Gian-CarloGian Carlo Rota
Another friend, Gian-Carlo Rota, asserted in a 1987 article that the attack changed Ulam's personality: afterwards, he turned from rigorous pure mathematics to more speculative conjectures concerning the application of mathematics to physics and biology; Rota also cites Ulam's former collaborator Paul Stein as noting that Ulam was sloppier in his clothing afterwards, and John Oxtoby as noting that Ulam before the encephalitis could work for hours on end doing calculations, while when Rota worked with him, was reluctant to solve even a quadratic equation.
Beginning in 1966 he was a consultant at Los Alamos National Laboratory, frequently visiting to lecture, discuss, and collaborate, notably with his friend Stanisław Ulam.

John Pasta

John R. PastaPasta
With Fermi, John Pasta, and Mary Tsingou, Ulam studied the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem, which became the inspiration for the field of non-linear science.
After working alongside Enrico Fermi, Stanislaw Ulam, and Mary Tsingou, Pasta went on to work for the Atomic Energy Commission as the only computer expert, eventually developing the branch of mathematics and computers to an entire division.