Star catalogue

star catalogNLTTLHSLTTcatalogueGaia catalogueCatalogHRLPLuyten Five-Tenths catalogue
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.wikipedia
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Star

starsstellarmassive star
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations.

Hipparchus

HipparchosHipparchus of NicaeaHipparchus of Nicea
Hipparchus (c.
His other reputed achievements include the discovery and measurement of Earth's precession, the compilation of the first comprehensive star catalog of the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, also of the armillary sphere, which he used during the creation of much of the star catalogue.

Star chart

star mapstar chartscelestial chart
They were sometimes accompanied by a star chart for illustration.
This evidence indicates that the star catalogue of the 2nd-century BC Greek astronomer Hipparchus was used.

Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyClaudius PtolemaeusPtolemaic
In the 2nd century, Ptolemy (c.
The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus.

Almagest

cataloghis book on astronomyMagna Syntaxis
90 – c. 186 AD) of Roman Egypt published a star catalogue as part of his Almagest, which listed 1,022 stars visible from Alexandria.

Chinese astronomy

ChineseastronomyChinese astronomers
The earliest known inscriptions for Chinese star names were written on oracle bones and date to the Shang Dynasty (c. Star catalogues are traditionally attributed to Shi Shen and Gan De, two rather obscure Chinese astronomers who may have been active in the 4th century BC of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).
In the fourth century BCE, the two Chinese astronomers responsible for the earliest information going into the star catalogues were Shi Shen and Gan De of the Warring States period.

Zhang Heng

Chang Hunggrid systemHeng Zhang
For his Spiritual Constitution of the Universe (靈憲, Ling Xian) of 120 AD, the astronomer Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) compiled a star catalogue comprising 124 constellations.
In addition to documenting about 2,500 stars in his extensive star catalog, Zhang also posited theories about the Moon and its relationship to the Sun: specifically, he discussed the Moon's sphericity, its illumination by reflected sunlight on one side and the hidden nature of the other, and the nature of solar and lunar eclipses.

Gan De

Star catalogues are traditionally attributed to Shi Shen and Gan De, two rather obscure Chinese astronomers who may have been active in the 4th century BC of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).
Along with Shi Shen, he is believed to be the first in history known by name to compile a star catalogue, preceded by the anonymous authors of the early Babylonian star catalogues and followed by the Greek Hipparchus who is the first known in the Western tradition to have compiled a star catalogue.

Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomyGreek astronomerastronomy
Approximately in the 3rd century BC, the Greek astronomers Timocharis of Alexandria and Aristillus created another star catalogue.
Hipparchus also compiled a star catalogue.

Ulugh Beg

Ulug BegMirzo UlugbekUlugbek
The Islamic astronomer al-Sufi updated it in 964, and the star positions were redetermined by Ulugh Beg in 1437, but it was not fully superseded until the appearance of the thousand-star catalogue of Tycho Brahe in 1598. These were mainly Zij treatises, including Arzachel's Tables of Toledo (1087), the Maragheh observatory's Zij-i Ilkhani (1272) and Ulugh Beg's Zij-i-Sultani (1437).
Using it, he compiled the 1437 Zij-i-Sultani of 994 stars, generally considered the greatest star catalogue between those of Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe, a work that stands alongside Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's Book of Fixed Stars.

Astronomical catalog

astronomical cataloguecatalogcatalogue
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.

Zij-i Sultani

Zij-i-Sultani
These were mainly Zij treatises, including Arzachel's Tables of Toledo (1087), the Maragheh observatory's Zij-i Ilkhani (1272) and Ulugh Beg's Zij-i-Sultani (1437).
The Zij-i-Sultani is generally considered the most accurate and extensive star catalogue up to its time, surpassing its predecessors, including Ptolemy's work, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's Book of Fixed Stars, and the Maragheh observatory's Zij-i Ilkhani.

Durchmusterung

CPBonner DurchmusterungBD
The Bonner Durchmusterung (German: Bonn sampling) and follow-ups were the most complete of the pre-photographic star catalogues. It was further supplemented by the Cordoba Durchmusterung (580,000 stars), which began to be compiled at Córdoba, Argentina in 1892 under the initiative of John M. Thome and covers declinations −22 to −90.
In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is an astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.

Histoire Céleste Française

Jérôme Lalande published the Histoire Céleste Française in 1801, which contained an extensive star catalog, among other things.
Histoire Céleste Française (French Celestial History) is an astrometric star catalogue published in 1801 by the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande and his staff at the Paris Observatory.

Timocharis

Timocharis of Alexandria
Approximately in the 3rd century BC, the Greek astronomers Timocharis of Alexandria and Aristillus created another star catalogue.
In approximately 3rd century BC, with the help of Aristillus, he created the first star catalogue in the Western world.

Astrometry

astrometricastrometristastrometrical
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalogue was compiled in 1966 from various previous astrometric catalogues, and contains only the stars to about ninth magnitude for which accurate proper motions were known.
The history of astrometry is linked to the history of star catalogues, which gave astronomers reference points for objects in the sky so they could track their movements.

Adalbert Krueger

Adalbert KrügerKarl Nikolaus Adalbert Krueger
The Bonner Durchmusterung itself was published by Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Adalbert Krüger, and Eduard Schönfeld between 1852 and 1859.
Under Argelander's supervision he produced data for the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue known as the Bonner Durchmusterung, together with fellow student Eduard Schönfeld.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
It was not until the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) that astronomers started to observe and record names for all the stars that were apparent (to the naked eye) in the night sky, not just those around the ecliptic.
Han Chinese astronomers made star catalogues and detailed records of comets that appeared in the night sky, including recording the 12 BC appearance of the comet now known as Halley's Comet.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander

Friedrich Wilhelm August ArgelanderArgelanderFriedrich Argelander
The Bonner Durchmusterung itself was published by Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Adalbert Krüger, and Eduard Schönfeld between 1852 and 1859.
Together with Adalbert Krüger and Eduard Schönfeld, Argelander was responsible for the star catalogue known as the Bonner Durchmusterung, published between 1859 and 1862, which gave the positions and brightness of more than 324,000 stars, although it did not cover much of the southern half of the sky.

John M. Thome

John Macon ThomeJohn Thome
It was further supplemented by the Cordoba Durchmusterung (580,000 stars), which began to be compiled at Córdoba, Argentina in 1892 under the initiative of John M. Thome and covers declinations −22 to −90.
Under his initiative, the Cordoba Durchmusterung star catalogue began to be compiled in 1892, although he did not live to see its completion.

Zij

ZījIslamic astronomical tablesAstronomical Tables
These were mainly Zij treatises, including Arzachel's Tables of Toledo (1087), the Maragheh observatory's Zij-i Ilkhani (1272) and Ulugh Beg's Zij-i-Sultani (1437).

Uranometria

1603Uranometria atlasUranometria Omnium Asterismorum
The first system comes from the German astronomer Johann Bayer's Uranometria, published in 1603 and regarding bright stars.

PPM Star Catalogue

Positions and Proper Motions Star CataloguesPPM
The PPM Star Catalogue (1991) is one of the best, both in the proper motion and star position till 1999.
It is designed to represent as closely as possible the IAU (1976) coordinate system on the sky, as defined by the FK5 star catalogue.

Variable star designation

designationvariable star designationsAG Piscium
It is worth mentioning, however, as it served as the starting point for variable star designations, which start with "R" through "Z", then "RR", "RS", "RT"..."RZ", "SS", "ST"..."ZZ" and beyond.

Stellar parallax

parallax shiftparallaxparallax measurements
It is particularly notable for its parallax measurements, which are considerably more accurate than those produced by ground-based observations.
Automated plate-measuring machines and more sophisticated computer technology of the 1960s allowed more efficient compilation of star catalogues.