Starch

Structure of the amylose molecule
Structure of the amylopectin molecule
Starch mill at Ballydugan (Northern Ireland), built in 1792
West Philadelphia Starch works at Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), 1850
Faultless Starch Company at Kansas City
potato starch granules in cells of the potato
starch in endosperm in embryonic phase of maize seed
Corn starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light, showing characteristic extinction cross
Rice starch seen on light microscope. Characteristic for the rice starch is that starch granules have an angular outline and some of them are attached to each other and form larger granules
Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope
Sago starch extraction from palm stems
Glucose syrup
Karo corn syrup advert 1917
Niagara corn starch advert 1880s
Pacific Laundry and Cooking Starch advert 1904
Starch adhesive
Gentleman with starched ruff in 1560
Kingsford Oswego Starch advertising, 1885
Rice starch for ironing

Polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

- Starch
Structure of the amylose molecule

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Schlenkerla Rauchbier, a traditional smoked beer, being poured from a cask into a beer glass

Beer

One of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

One of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

Schlenkerla Rauchbier, a traditional smoked beer, being poured from a cask into a beer glass
Beore 'beer'
Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California
François Jaques: Peasants Enjoying Beer at Pub in Fribourg (Switzerland, 1923)
A 16th-century brewery
Malted barley before roasting
Hop cone in a Hallertau, Germany, hop yard
Brewing factory
Annual beer consumption per capita by country
Cask ale hand pumps with pump clips detailing the beers and their breweries
Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries
Paulaner dunkel – a dark lager
A selection of cask beers
Assortment of beer bottles
A tent at Munich's Oktoberfest in Germany. The event is known as the world's largest beer festival.
Beer culture in Cameroon. A friendship drink of millet beer at the market, Mogode, Cameroon, 1998.

It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats are also used.

Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units.

Glycogen

Multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

Multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

Schematic two-dimensional cross-sectional view of glycogen: A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain around 30,000 glucose units.
A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule.
Glycogen (black granules) in spermatozoa of a flatworm; transmission electron microscopy, scale: 0.3 μm
1,4-α-glycosidic linkages in the glycogen oligomer
1,4-α-glycosidic and 1,6-glycosidic linkages in the glycogen oligomer
Action of glycogen phosphorylase on glycogen

Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants.

A sample of biodiesel

Biofuel

Fuel that is produced over a short time span from biomass, rather than by the very slow natural processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil.

Fuel that is produced over a short time span from biomass, rather than by the very slow natural processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil.

A sample of biodiesel
Biofuel energy production, 2019
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Neat ethanol on the left (A), gasoline on the right (G) at a filling station in Brazil
Biofuel pumps DCA 07 2010 9834
Targray Biofuels Division railcar transporting Biodiesel.
This truck is one of 15 based at Walmart's Buckeye, Arizona distribution center that was converted to run on a biofuel made from reclaimed cooking grease produced during food preparation at Walmart stores.
Biofuel production by region

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (E100), but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.

Amylose A is a parallel double-helix of linear chains of glucose

Amylose

Polysaccharide made of α- D -glucose units, bonded to each other through α glycosidic bonds.

Polysaccharide made of α- D -glucose units, bonded to each other through α glycosidic bonds.

Amylose A is a parallel double-helix of linear chains of glucose

It is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30%.

An antique spurge plant, Euphorbia antiquorum, sending out white rhizomes

Rhizome

Modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

Modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

An antique spurge plant, Euphorbia antiquorum, sending out white rhizomes
Stolons growing from nodes from a corm of Crocosmia
Turmeric rhizome, whole and ground into a spice

In general, a tuber is high in starch, e.g. the potato, which is a modified stolon.

Typha

Genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.

Genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.

Typhas pictured in the coat of arms of Kälviä, a former municipality located on the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia
Typha at the edge of a small wetland in Indiana
Typha latifolia (蒲) in Japan
Typha at the edge of a reservoir in Croatia

Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe 30,000 years ago.

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species

Rice

Seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

Seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers
Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Jumli Marshi, brown rice from Nepal
Rice can come in many shapes, colors and sizes.
Single grain of rice under handmade microscope
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice
Unmilled to milled Japanese rice, from left to right, brown rice, rice with germ, white rice
Tteumul, water from the washing of rice
-Rice processing- A: Rice with chaff B: Brown rice C: Rice with germ D: White rice with bran residue E: Musenmai (Japanese: 無洗米), "Polished and ready to boil rice", literally, non-wash rice (1): Chaff (2): Bran (3): Bran residue (4): Cereal germ (5): Endosperm
Worldwide rice production
Production of rice (2019)
Burning of rice residues after harvest, to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around Sangrur, Punjab, India.
Rice combine harvester Katori-city, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
After the harvest, rice straw is gathered in the traditional way from small paddy fields in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Drying rice in Peravoor, India
Work by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture to measure the greenhouse gas emissions of rice production.
Chinese rice grasshopper (Oxya chinensis) Borneo, Malaysia
Chloroxylon is used for pest management in organic rice cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India.
Rice seed collection from IRRI
Ancient statue of Dewi Sri from Java (c. 9th century)
Hainanese chicken rice in Singapore

Rice flour and starch often are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness.

Relation of amylopectin to starch granule

Amylopectin

Water-insoluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

Water-insoluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

Relation of amylopectin to starch granule
Structure of the amylopectin molecule
Cluster model of amylopectin
Anton van Leeuwenhoek

It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose.

Potato

Flowers of a potato plant
Potato plants
Potatoes in an Oklahoma garden
Russet potatoes
A thin section of a potato under light microscopy. It has been treated with an iodine based dye that binds to starch, turning it purple, showing the high starch content.
Potatoes with different pigmentation
Production of potatoes (2019)
Global production of potatoes in 2008
Potatoes from North India
'Early Rose' variety seed tuber with sprouts
Potato fruit, which is not edible
Potato planting
Potato field in Fort Fairfield, Maine
Potatoes grown in a tall bag are common in gardens as they minimize the amount of digging required at harvest
A potato infected by late blight
A modern potato harvester
Potato transportation to cold storage in India
Potato farming in India
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Papa rellena
Baked potato with sour cream and chives
German Bauernfrühstück ("farmer's breakfast")
Cepelinai
French fries served with a hamburger
Poutine, a Canadian dish of fried potatoes, cheese curds, and gravy
The Potato Eaters by Van Gogh, 1885 (Van Gogh Museum)
The Potato Harvest by Jean-François Millet, 1855 (Walters Art Museum)

The potato is a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum and is a root vegetable native to the Americas.

Banana

Elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

Elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

Fruits of four different banana cultivars
Young banana plant
The Musa 'Nendran' cultivar grown widely in the Indian state of Kerala is a member of the AAB cultivar group.
Banana plants, Mahamaya Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Cavendish bananas are the most common dessert bananas sold.
Original native ranges of the ancestors of modern edible bananas. Musa acuminata is shown in green and Musa balbisiana in orange.
Fruits of wild-type bananas have numerous large, hard seeds.
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific
Actual and probable diffusion of bananas during the Caliphates (700–1500 CE)
Illustration of fruit and banana plant from Acta Eruditorum, 1734
Cavendish bananas are the main commercial banana cultivars sold in the world market.
Ralstonia solanacearum on a overripe banana
Ripened bananas (left, under sunlight) fluoresce when exposed to UV light.
Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. The bags may be coated with pesticides.
The cold storage room for the banana collection at Bioversity International's Musa Germplasm Transit Centre
Banana blossom used for culinary purpose
Leaf of banana plant
Nang Tani, the female ghost of Thai folklore that haunts banana plants
A tear gas canister with a banana for scale. This method of size comparisons is an internet meme.
A banana corm, about {{convert|25|cm|in|abbr=on|0}} across
Young banana plant
Female flowers have petals at the tip of the ovary
Banana 'tree' showing fruit and inflorescence
Single row planting of banana
Banana inflorescence, partially opened
Wild banana with flowers and stem growing in reverse direction
Extracted banana DNA strands
Banana with Lemon curry made in a house in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Kilawin na pusô ng saging, a Filipino dish using banana flowers
Nicaraguan Nacatamales, in banana leaves, ready to be steamed
Kaeng yuak is a northern Thai curry made with the core of the banana plant.
Pisang goreng fried banana coated in batter, popular snack in Indonesia
Banana in sweet gravy, known as pengat pisang in Malaysia

The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe.