Starshina

Group of Soviet soldiers, in the foreground starshina with appropriate insignia introduced in 1943 (Bulgaria, 1944).
Uzbek, stashina (аксакал) village Chodshagent (ru: Ходжагент), 1868, drawing by V.V. Vereshchagin
Bashkirs-starshina with starshina insignia (medal), Orenburg, 1892
{{lang|be|Старшына}}
{{lang|bg|Старшина}}
{{lang|ky|Старшина}}
{{lang|ru|Старшина́}}
{{lang|tg|Старшина}}
{{lang|tk|Starşina}}
{{lang|hy|ԱՎԱԳ}}
{{lang|mn|Aхлагч}}

Senior non-commissioned rank or designation in the military forces of some Slavic states, and a historical military designation.

- Starshina

94 related topics

Relevance

Colonel (Eastern Europe)

Military rank used mostly in Slavic-speaking countries which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries.

Countries which use the Eastern European variant
{{center|Shoulder board Pokovnik IRA until 1917}}
{{center|Nevsky 1st Infantry Regiment}}
{{center|Siberian 1st of His Highness Infantry Regiment}}
{{center|25th Infantry division}}
{{center|Ivanogorodsky 99th infantry regiment}}
{{center|Gorget patch RA, Land forces (1935-1940)}}
{{center|... Air Force (1935-1940)}}
{{center|land forces RA (1940-1943)}}
{{center|Air Force (1940-1943)}}
{{center|Shoulder board RA infantry/ motorized infantry (1943-1946)/ CA (1946-55)}}
{{center|parade uniform, Land forces (1955-1994), and since 2010}}
{{center|... ABF, AF, Aviation of the ADF (1955-1994), and since 2010}}
{{center|everyday uniform, Ground forces until 2010}}
{{center|..., ABF until 2010}}
{{center|..., AF until 2010}}
{{center|field uniform until 2010}}
{{center|parade uniform shirt, Ground forces until 2010}}
{{center|everyday uniform Naval forces on land until 2010}}
{{center|everyday uniform jacket Internal Troops}}
{{lang|ru|Полко́вник}}
{{center|field uniform since 2010}}
{{center|everyday uniform jacket (Naval Aviation) since 2010}}
{{center|Polkovnik of the Police (until 2011 — Militsiya), also Internal Troops}}
{{lang|az|Polkovnik}}<ref name="Azerbaijan">{{cite web |title=Azərbaycan Respublikası Silahlı Qüvvələri hərbi qulluqçularının hərbi geyim forması və fərqləndirmə nişanları haqqında Əsasnamə |url=https://mod.gov.az//images/pdf/854d34d118da32783a511172925270d7.pdf |website=mod.gov.az |publisher=Ministry of Defense |access-date=16 February 2021 |language=az |pages=64–70 |date=25 June 2001}}</ref>
{{lang|tk|Polkownik}}<ref name="Turkmenistan">{{cite web |title=TÜRKMENISTANYŇ KANUNY Harby borçlulyk we harby gulluk hakynda (Türkmenistanyň Mejlisiniň Maglumatlary 2010 ý., № 3, 58-nji madda) (Türkmenistanyň 01.10.2011 ý. № 234-IV Kanuny esasynda girizilen üýtgetmeler we goşmaçalar bilen) |trans-title=LAW OF TURKMENISTAN On military service and military service (Information of the Mejlis of Turkmenistan, 2010, No. 3, Article 58) (as amended by the Law of Turkmenistan of October 1, 2011 No. 234-IV) |url=https://milligosun.gov.tm/storage/file/04-harby-borclulyk-we-harby-gulluk-hakynda-ky9J0pKxTQ.pdf |website=milligosun.gov.tm |publisher=Ministry of Defense (Turkmenistan) |access-date=2 June 2021 |pages=28-29 |language=tk}}</ref>
{{lang|bs|Pukovnik}}<ref name="Bosnia&Herzegovina">{{cite web |title=OBILJEŽJA I ČINOVI OS BIH |url=http://os.mod.gov.ba/vojna-oprema-naoruzanje-i-simboli-os-bih/oznake-cinova-i-uniforme-u-os-bih/Obilje%c5%beja_i_cinovi_OS_BiH/default.aspx?id=1737&langTag=bs-BA&template_id=181&pageIndex=1 |website=os.mod.gov.ba |publisher=Oružane snage Bosne i Hercegovine |access-date=30 September 2019 |language=bs}}</ref>
{{lang|bg|Полковник}}
{{lang|hr|Pukovnik}}<ref name="Croatia">{{cite web |title=Oznake činova |url=http://www.osrh.hr/#rubData/HTML/HR/RAZNO/OZNAKE/20190401_Galerija_oznaka/Galerija_oznaka_HR.htm |website=osrh.hr |publisher=Republic of Croatia Armed Forces |access-date=26 May 2021 |language=hr |date=1 April 2019}}</ref>
{{lang|cs|Plukovník}}<ref name="Czech_Republic">{{cite web |title=Ranks |url=https://www.army.cz/scripts/detail.php?id=49065 |website=army.cz |publisher=Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic |date=2018 |access-date=26 May 2021}}</ref>
{{lang|ka|პოლკოვნიკი}}
{{lang|kk|Полковник}}
{{lang|ky|Полковник}}
{{lang|lv|Pulkvedis}}<ref name="Latvia">{{cite web |title=Pakāpju iedalījums |url=https://www.mil.lv/lv/aktivais-dienests/dienesta-gaita/dienesta-pakapes/pakapju-iedalijums |website=mil.lv/lv |publisher=Latvian National Armed Forces |access-date=26 May 2021 |language=lv}}</ref>
{{lang|lt|Pulkininkas}}'<ref name="Lithuania">{{cite web |title=Karių laipsnių ženklai |url=http://kariuomene.kam.lt/lt/kariuomenes_atributika/kariu_laipsniu_zenklai_3554.html |website=kariuomene.kam.lt |publisher=Ministry of National Defence (Lithuania) |access-date=26 May 2021 |language=lt}}</ref>
{{lang|mk|Полковник}}
{{lang|sr-Latn|Pukovnik}}
{{lang|pl|Pułkownik}}<ref name="Poland_Army&AirForce">{{cite web |title=Sposób noszenia odznak stopni wojskowych na umundurowaniu wojsk Lądowych i sił Powietrznych |url=https://www.wojsko-polskie.pl/iwsp/u/14/fc/14fc23f7-28a0-4a42-9ac0-287d512ffcb9/08b_oznaki_stopni_wojskowych_na_umundurowaniu_wl_i_sp_ok.pdf |website=wojsko-polskie.pl |publisher=Armed Forces Support Inspectorate |access-date=7 June 2021 |language=pl}}</ref>
{{lang|sr|Пуковник}}
{{lang|sk|Plukovník}}<ref name="Slovakia">{{cite web |title=Označenie vojenských hodností príslušníkov Ozbrojených síl Slovenskej republiky od 1.1.2016 |trans-title=Designation of military ranks of members of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic from 1.1.2016 |url=http://www.vhu.sk/oznacenie-vojenskych-hodnosti-prislusnikov-ozbrojenych-sil-slovenskej-republiky-od-112016/ |website=vhu.sk |publisher=Military History Institute |access-date=12 April 2021 |language=sk}}</ref>
{{lang|sl|Polkovnik}}<ref name="Slovenia">{{cite web |title=Čini in razredi |url=https://www.slovenskavojska.si/o-vojski/cini-in-razredi/ |website=slovenskavojska.si |publisher=Slovenian Armed Forces |access-date=26 May 2021 |language=sl}}</ref>
{{lang|uk|Полковник}}
{{lang|uz|Polkovnik}}<ref name="Uzbekistan">{{cite web |title=O‘zbekiston Respublikasi fuqarolarining harbiy xizmatni o‘tash tartibi to‘g‘risida |url=https://lex.uz/docs/-4513434 |website=lex.uz |publisher=Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Uzbekistan |access-date=3 June 2021 |language=uz |date=12 September 2019}}</ref>

In the Zaporozhian Host, the political, social, and military organization of Ukrainian cossacks, the title polkovnyk indicated a high military rank among the Ukrainian Cossack starshyna (officers); a polkovnyk commanded one or more military detachments during land and naval military actions in the 16th to 18th centuries.

Praporshchik

Rank used by the Russian Armed Forces and a number of former communist states.

Shoulder insignia c. 1900
{{lang|hy|ԵՆԹԱՍՊԱ}}
{{lang|az|Gizir}}
{{lang|be|Прапаршчык}}
{{lang|cs|Praporčík}}
{{lang|ky|Прапорщик}}
{{lang|ru|Пра́порщик}}
{{lang|sl|Praporščak}}
{{lang|tg|Прапоршик}}

Contrary to Western practice of assigning the senior sergeant ranks to veteran soldiers, the Soviet ranks of starshina and sergeant were routinely assigned to 20-year-old soldiers at the end of their 2-year draft.

Sotnik

Sotnyk of Ukrainian Cossacks

Sotnik or sotnyk (со́тник, сотник, стотник) was a military rank among the Cossack starshyna (military officers), Strelets Troops (17th century) in Muscovy and Imperial Cossack cavalry (since 1826), the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, the Ukrainian Galician Army, and the Ukrainian People's Army.

Mountain Jews

Mountain Jews or Caucasus Jews also known as Juhuro, Juvuro, Juhuri, Juwuri, Juhurim, Kavkazi Jews or Gorsky Jews (יהודי קווקז Yehudey Kavkaz or Yehudey he-Harim; Горские евреи, Dağ Yəhudiləri) are Jews of the eastern and northern Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan, and various republics in the Russian Federation: Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.

Synagogue at Qırmızı Qəsəbə, Azerbaijan
Synagogue in Gilaki quarter of Qırmızı Qəsəbə which was reopened in 1941 after initially being closed by Bolsheviks.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni and his family with chokha resting after a day of work.
Jewish Cemetery in Nalchik
Class held at a primary Mountain Jewish school in Quba. Early 1920s.
Mountain Jewish woman, painted by Max Tilke in the early 20th century.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni wearing a chokha and a papakha on his head. Circa 1898.
Jewish Girls of the Caucasus in Dagestan (1913).
Mountain Jewish delegates with Theodor Herzl at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1897).
Mountain Jew. Circa 1898.
Mountain Jewish woman from Dagestan. 1870-1880.
Mountain Jewish woman and her children. Circa 1900.
Mountain Jews of the Caucasus. Circa 1900.

Albert Agarunov (1969–1992), the National Hero of Azerbaijan, starshina of the Azerbaijani Army who died during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War

Sergeant

Rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.

A U.S. Army sergeant from the 29th Infantry Division in 2011.
The insignia of an Australian police sergeant
OR-5 insignia
OR-5 insignia
OR-6 insignia
Sergeant insignia
100px
100px
The collar and sleeve insignia of kersantti
German sergeant (Unteroffizier) shoulder board
German Navy sergeant (Maat) shoulder board
Irish Army sergeant's rank slider
IDF Rank: סמל Samal
The metal sergeant rank pin is worn on the collar of the uniform.
Sierżant shoulder strap
100px
100px
80px
80px
RAF Sergeant's rank insignia
UK Police Patrol Sergeant Epaulette
80px
U.S. Marine sergeant's sleeve insignia
Old U.S. Air Force sergeant rank insignia.
U.S. Space Force sergeant rank insignia.
Army sergeant
Air Force sergeant
Sergeant insignia

There is also a rank called "starshina" (старшина), which is often translated as "master sergeant".

Zaporozhian Cossacks

Today Central Ukraine and Eastern Ukraine.

Zaporozhian cossack by Konstantin Makovsky, 1884
Thousands of slaves were freed in 1616 when the Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny captured the town of Kaffa in Crimea
Azov Cossack's corsairs (pirates) attacking Turkish ship
Historical map of Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate and territory of Zaporozhian Cossacks under rule of Russian Empire (1751).
Zaporozhian cossack with bandura
Cossack army in 1648
Zaporozhian cossacks fighting Tatars from the Crimean Khanate, by Józef Brandt.
Massacre of Polish captives by Cossacks after the battle of Batoh 1652
Rear guard of the Zaporozhians, painting by Józef Brandt
Zaporozhian's Attack in steppes, by Franz Roubaud
"Cossack with a head of a Tatar."
Zaporozhian Cossack from Crimea
Black Sea Cossacks, c. 1807
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the Ukrainian Army's 55th Artillery Brigade "Zaporozhian Sich"

Some sources refer to the Zaporozhian Sich as a "cossack republic", as the highest power in it belonged to the assembly of all its members, and because its leaders (starshina) were elected.

Battle of Tannenberg Line

Sub-article to Battle of Narva .

Front line positions
View from the summit of the Grenadier Hill towards the Orphanage Hill
German soldier equipped with a Panzerschreck in August, 1944
1949 photo showing the extent of damage to the once forested approach to the hills of Sinimäed. Disabled Panzer IV in the foreground.

Among the Soviet tank commanders, starshina S.F. Smirnov destroyed five German strongpoints.

Deluge (history)

Series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The occupation of the Commonwealth by Sweden, Russia, Brandenburg and Khmelnytsky's Cossacks
Nineteenth-century reimagining of the 1655 Siege of Jasna Góra.
Swedish Siege of Kraków in 1655
The Vow of John Casimir by Jan Matejko (1838–1893) shows the Polish king in Lwów in 1655, pledging to drive out the Swedes.
Battle of Warsaw in 1656
Transylvanian–Swedish Siege of Brest in 1657, painted by E. Dahlbergh
Siege of Toruń in 1658
Charles X Gustav in skirmish with Tatars at the battle of Warsaw, July 29, 1656. Johan Philip Lemke, oil on canvas, 1684.

Supported by Cossack Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and the starshyna, the treaty aimed to change the face of Eastern Europe.

Ivan Gudovich

Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent.

frame
Anapa Fortress, taken by Gudovich in 1791.

Ivan's father was an influential member of the Ukrainian Cossack starshina.

Volost

Traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe.

Computer rendering of Eastern Europe

These elect an elder (starshina) and, hitherto, a court of justice (volostnoy sud).