State (polity)

statestatesthe statestatehoodpolitical societytemporaltemporal powerstate apparatusstate-level societyinternal affairs
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.wikipedia
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Politics

politicalpoliticianpolitically
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.

Government

governmentsform of governmentgovernmental
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

Hegemony

hegemonichegemonworld domination
Some states are sovereign, other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.
Hegemony (, or ) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

Sovereignty

sovereignsovereign entitysovereign nation
Some states are sovereign, other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.
In his 1576 treatise Les Six Livres de la République ("Six Books of the Republic") Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that sovereignty must be:

Social contract

social contract theorycontractariancontractarianism
Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.).
In moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

The Prince

Il Principeadvised the princeEl Príncipe
The early 16th-century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense.
In the first sentence Machiavelli uses the word "state" (Italian stato which could also mean "status") in order to neutrally cover "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely".

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
The most commonly used definition is Max Weber's, which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory.
In another major work, "Politics as a Vocation", Weber defined the state as an entity that successfully claims a "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory".

Constitution

constitutionalconstitutional governmentconstitutions
A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom.

Nation state

nation-statecountrynation-states
Today, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. In the classical thought, the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community, while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
A nation state (or nation-state) is a state in which the great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. The nation state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political ones.

Civil society

civic organizationcivil society organizationscivil societies
In the classical thought, the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community, while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
The literature on relations between civil society and democratic political society have their roots in classical liberal writings of G.W.F. Hegel from whom they were adapted by Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, and Ferdinand Tönnies.

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state immoral, unnecessary, and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy.
Anarchism holds capitalism, the state, and representative democracy to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.

Christian anarchism

Christian anarchistChristian anarchistsanarchist
Various Christian anarchists, such as Jacques Ellul, have identified the State and political power as the Beast in the Book of Revelation.
Christian anarchists denounce the state, believing it is violent, deceitful and, when glorified, idolatrous.

Stateless society

statelessstateless societiesfreedom from government
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state immoral, unnecessary, and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia; however, for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies.
A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.

Anarchy

anarchicanarchistanarchists
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state immoral, unnecessary, and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy.
Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful.

Monopoly on violence

monopoly on the legitimate use of physical forcemonopoly of violencemonopoly on the legitimate use of force
The most commonly used definition is Max Weber's, which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory.
As the defining conception of the state, it was first described in sociology by Max Weber in his essay Politics as a Vocation (1919).

Police

policingpolice forcepolice department
Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.

Regulation

regulationsregulatorygovernment regulation
Privatization, nationalization, and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the state in relation to society.
State-mandated regulation is government intervention in the private market in an attempt to implement policy and produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, ranging from consumer protection to faster growth or technological advancement.

Base and superstructure

superstructureeconomic basesuperstructures
Marx's early writings portrayed the bourgeois state as parasitic, built upon the superstructure of the economy, and working against the public interest.
The base determines society's other relationships and ideas to comprise its superstructure, including its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
The first are known as "liberal" or "conservative" theories, which treat capitalism as a given, and then concentrate on the function of states in capitalist society.
The relationship between the state, its formal mechanisms and capitalist societies has been debated in many fields of social and political theory, with active discussion since the 19th century.

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
Democracy wasn't (the newly formed voting franchise) as is always painted by both political revolutionaries and political philosophers as a cry for political freedom or wanting to be accepted by the 'ruling elite', Foucault insists, but was a part of a skilled endeavour of switching over new technology such as; Translatio imperii, Plenitudo potestatis and extra Ecclesiam nulla salus readily available from the past Medieval period, into mass persuasion for the future industrial 'political' population(deception over the population) in which the political population was now asked to insist upon itself “the president must be elected”.
Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations.

Cameralism

cameralistcameralisticcameral
Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries that aimed at strong management of a centralized economy for mainly the state's benefit.

Biopolitics

biopoliticaleugenics warsbio-
Foucault calls these new forms of technology Biopower and form part of our political inheritance which he calls Biopolitics.
1) In Kjellén's organicist view, the state was a quasi-biological organism, a "super-individual creature". Kjellén sought to study "the civil war between social groups" (comprising the state) from a biological perspective and thus named his putative discipline "biopolitics".

Jürgen Habermas

HabermasHabermasianJurgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas spoke of a public sphere that was distinct from both the economic and political sphere.
Habermas contends that communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.

Military organization

formationmilitary unitunit
Initially states emerged over territories built by conquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state immoral, unnecessary, and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy. States may be classified by Political philosophers as sovereign if they are not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state.
Robert Nozick: Criticized Rawls, and argued for libertarianism, by appeal to a hypothetical history of the state and of property.