State (polity)

statestatesthe statestatehoodpolitical societytemporalstate apparatustemporal powerstate-level societyestado
A state is a polity that is typically established as a centralized organisation.wikipedia
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Hegemony

hegemonichegemonworld domination
Some states are sovereign, while other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where supreme authority lies in another state.
Hegemony (, or ) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

Sovereignty

sovereignsovereign entitysovereign nation
Some states are sovereign, while other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where supreme authority lies in another state.
In international law, the important concept of sovereignty refers to the exercise of power by a state.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
Max Weber's definition of a state as a polity that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence is widely used, as are many others.
In another major work, "Politics as a Vocation", Weber defined the state as an entity that successfully claims a "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory".

Polity

politiespolitical entitypolitical entities
A state is a polity that is typically established as a centralized organisation.
In geopolitics, a polity can be manifested in different forms, such as a state, an empire, an international organization, a political organization and other identifiable, resource-manipulating organizational structures.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.).
In moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

The Prince

Il PrincipePrinceadvised the prince
The early 16th-century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense.
In the first sentence, Machiavelli uses the word "state" (Italian stato which could also mean "status") in order to cover, in neutral terms, "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely."

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a state is "a. an organized political community under one government; a commonwealth; a nation. b. such a community forming part of a federal republic, esp the United States of America".
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

Monopoly on violence

monopoly on the legitimate use of physical forcemonopoly of violencemonopoly on the legitimate use of force
Max Weber's definition of a state as a polity that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence is widely used, as are many others.
As the defining conception of the state, it was first described in sociology by Max Weber in his essay Politics as a Vocation (1919).

Multinational state

multiethnicmulti-ethnicmultiethnic society
In contrast, some states have sought to make a virtue of their multi-ethnic or multi-national character (Habsburg Austria-Hungary, for example, or the Soviet Union), and have emphasised unifying characteristics such as autocracy, monarchical legitimacy, or ideology.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations or states.

Constitution

constitutionalconstitutionsconstitutional government
A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom.

Nation

nationsnationalnationhood
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a state is "a. an organized political community under one government; a commonwealth; a nation. b. such a community forming part of a federal republic, esp the United States of America".
According to some of these studies, it seems that the State often plays a significant role, and communications, particularly of economic content, also have a high significance.

Nation state

nation-statecountrynation-states
Today, the modern nation state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. In the classical thought, the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community, while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
A nation state is a state in which the great majority shares the same culture and are conscious of it.

Civil society

civil society organizationscivil societiesglobal civil society
In the classical thought, the state was identified with both political society and civil society as a form of political community, while the modern thought distinguished the nation state as a political society from civil society as a form of economic society. Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
The literature on relations between civil society and democratic political society have their roots in classical liberal writings of G.W.F. Hegel from whom they were adapted by Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, and Ferdinand Tönnies.

Christian anarchism

Christian anarchistChristian anarchistsAlexandre Christoyannopoulos
Various Christian anarchists, such as Jacques Ellul, have identified the State and political power as the Beast in the Book of Revelation.
Christian anarchists denounce the state, believing it is violent, deceitful and, when glorified, idolatrous.

Anarchy

anarchicanarchistanarchists
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state and hierarchies to be immoral, unnecessary and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy, a self-managed, self-governed society based on voluntary, cooperative institutions.
The word originally meant leaderlessness, but Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his 1840 treatise What Is Property? to refer to anarchism, a new political philosophy which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations.

Stateless society

statelessstateless societiesfreedom from government
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state and hierarchies to be immoral, unnecessary and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy, a self-managed, self-governed society based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia; however, for most of prehistory people lived in stateless societies.
A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state and hierarchies to be immoral, unnecessary and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy, a self-managed, self-governed society based on voluntary, cooperative institutions.
Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, on freedom and on decentralisation, but this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an a posteriori conclusion).

Police

policingpolice forcepolice department
Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.

Regulation

regulationsregulatorygovernment regulation
Privatization, nationalization, and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the state in relation to society.
State-mandated regulation is government intervention in the private market in an attempt to implement policy and produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, ranging from consumer protection to faster growth or technological advancement.

Cameralism

cameralistCameralcameralistic
Foucault insists that the Nation state was not a historical accident but a deliberate production in which the modern state had to now manage coincidentally with the emerging practice of the Police (Cameral science) 'allowing' the population to now 'come in' into jus gentium and civitas (Civil society) after deliberately being excluded for several millennia.
Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries that aimed at strong management of a centralized economy for mainly the state's benefit.

Base and superstructure

superstructurebasesuperstructures
Marx's early writings portrayed the bourgeois state as parasitic, built upon the superstructure of the economy, and working against the public interest.
The base determines society's other relationships and ideas to comprise its superstructure, including its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state.

Biopolitics

biopoliticalbio-politicsbio-
Foucault calls these new forms of technology Biopower and form part of our political inheritance which he calls Biopolitics.
In Kjellén's organicist view, the state was a quasi-biological organism, a "super-individual creature".

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
Democracy wasn't (the newly formed voting franchise) as is always painted by both political revolutionaries and political philosophers as a cry for political freedom or wanting to be accepted by the 'ruling elite', Foucault insists, but was a part of a skilled endeavour of switching over new technology such as; Translatio imperii, Plenitudo potestatis and extra Ecclesiam nulla salus readily available from the past Medieval period, into mass persuasion for the future industrial 'political' population(deception over the population) in which the political population was now asked to insist upon itself “the president must be elected”.
Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
The first are known as "liberal" or "conservative" theories, which treat capitalism as a given, and then concentrate on the function of states in capitalist society.
The relationship between the state, its formal mechanisms and capitalist societies has been debated in many fields of social and political theory, with active discussion since the 19th century.

Jürgen Habermas

HabermasHabermasianJurgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas spoke of a public sphere that was distinct from both the economic and political sphere.
Habermas contends that communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.