State court (United States)

state courtstate courtsstateMunicipal CourtDistrict Judgejudicialmunicipal courtsMunicipal Judgestate court systemsstate judge
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state.wikipedia
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State supreme court

highest courtsupreme courtstate supreme courts
Generally, there is also a highest court for appeals, a state supreme court, that oversees the court system.
In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state (i.e., that state's court of last resort).

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state.
All are grounded in republican principles, and each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive, legislative, and judicial.

Colorado water courts

ColoradoDistrict Court for Water Division 3Water Divisions
Other courts of limited jurisdiction include alderman's courts, police court, mayor's courts, recorder's courts, county courts, probate courts, municipal courts, juvenile courts, courts of claims, courts of common pleas, family courts, small claims courts, tax courts, water courts (present in some western states such as Colorado and Montana), and workers' compensation courts.
The Colorado water courts are specialized state courts of the U.S. state of Colorado.

Federal judiciary of the United States

federal courtfederal courtsUnited States federal court
State courts handle the vast majority of civil and criminal cases in the United States; the much smaller in case load and personnel, United States federal courts, handle different types of cases.
It generally hears appeals from the courts of appeals and sometimes state courts, operating under discretionary review, which means that the Supreme Court can choose which cases to hear, by granting writs of certiorari.

Trial court

court of first instancefirst instancecourts of first instance
Cases in state courts begin in a trial court where lawsuits and criminal cases are filed and evidence is eventually presented if a case proceeds to a hearing or trial.
In the United States, the United States district courts are the trial courts of general jurisdiction of the federal judiciary; each U.S. state has a state court system establishing trial courts of general jurisdiction, such as the Florida Circuit Courts in Florida, the Superior Courts of California in California, and the New York Supreme Court in New York.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
In matters that involve issues of federal law, the final decision of the state's highest court (including refusals to hear final appeals) may be appealed to the United States Supreme Court (which also has the discretion to refuse to hear them).
It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that involve a point of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party".

Alabama Circuit Courts

Alabama Circuit Court5th Judicial Circuit of AlabamaCircuit Court
The Alabama Circuit Courts are the state trial courts of general jurisdiction in the State of Alabama.

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Federal Rule of Civil ProcedureFRCP12(b)(6)
Most states model their general jurisdiction trial court rules closely upon the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure with modifications to address types of cases that come up only in state practice (like traffic violations), and model their professional ethics rules closely upon models drafted by the American Bar Association with minor modifications.
(States may determine their own rules, which apply in state courts, although 35 of the 50 states have adopted rules that are based on the FRCP.)

Original jurisdiction

originalcourt of first instanceoriginal action
Generally, a single judicial officer, usually called a judge, exercises original jurisdiction by presiding over contested criminal or civil actions which culminate in trials, although most matters stop short of reaching trial.
In the federal court system and those of most U.S. states, there are several types of trial courts.

Removal jurisdiction

removedremovalremove
If a plaintiff files suit in state court in such a case, the defendant can remove the case to federal court.
In the United States, removal jurisdiction sometimes exists for the defendant to move a civil action filed in a state court to the United States district court in the district in which the state court is located.

Arkansas Circuit Courts

4th Judicial Circuit CourtCircuit Court of Arkansas10th Judicial Circuit Court
The Arkansas Circuit Courts are the state trial courts of general jurisdiction of the state of Arkansas.

California Courts of Appeal

California Court of AppealCalifornia Court of AppealsCourt of Appeal
The California Courts of Appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U.S. state of California.

California superior courts

Superior CourtCalifornia Superior CourtSuperior Court of California
Superior courts in California are the state trial courts with general jurisdiction to hear and decide any civil or criminal action which is not specially designated to be heard in some other court or before a governmental agency.

Deposition (law)

depositiondepositionsdeposed
In general jurisdiction state courts, it is not uncommon for all pre-trial matters to be conducted outside the court, with attorneys negotiating scheduling matters, pre-trial examinations of witnesses taking place in lawyer's office through deposition s, and a settlement conference conducted by a private mediator at the mediator's office.
About 35 states use versions of the FRCP in their state courts.

Colorado district courts

Colorado District Courtdistrict court17th Judicial District Court
Colorado district courts are the state trial courts of general jurisdiction in the U.S. state of Colorado.

Alaska Supreme Court

Supreme Court of Alaskastate Supreme CourtSupreme Court
The decisions of the Alaska Supreme Court are binding on all other Alaska state courts, and the only court its decisions may be appealed to is the U.S. Supreme Court.

Supreme Court of California

California Supreme CourtChief Justice of CaliforniaSupreme Court
Its decisions are binding on all other California state courts.

Connecticut Superior Court

Superior CourtConn. Super. Ct.New London District Superior Court
The Connecticut Superior Court is the state trial court of general jurisdiction.

Florida circuit courts

Circuit CourtFlorida Circuit CourtCircuit Court Judge
The Florida circuit courts are state courts, and are trial courts of original jurisdiction for most controversies.

Delaware Superior Court

Chief Justice of DelawareSuperior CourtSuperior Court of Delaware
The Delaware Superior Court, previously known as the Superior Court and Orphans' Court, is the state trial court of general jurisdiction in the state of Delaware.

Judiciary of Alaska

Alaska Superior CourtAlaska Court SystemAlaska District Court
It has four levels of state courts:

Illinois circuit courts

Illinois Circuit CourtCircuit Courtcircuit courts
The Illinois circuit courts are state courts of the U.S. state of Illinois.

Iowa District Courts

Iowa District Court4th Judicial District of IowaDistrict Court
Iowa District Courts are the state trial courts of general jurisdiction in the U.S. state of Iowa.

Default judgment

defaultdefault judgementJudgement in Default
Trials in these courts are often held only after extensive pre-trial procedures that in more than 90% of cases lead to a default judgment in a civil case, an agreed resolution settling the case or plea bargain resolving a criminal case, or pre-trial resolution of the case by a judge either on the merits or on procedural grounds.
State courts, United States Federal Courts, Tribal Courts and many Administrative Agencies have their own laws and local procedural rules relating to the granting and setting aside of a default judgment.