A report on State court (United States)

In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state.

- State court (United States)

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Processes for selecting state supreme court judges: 
Gubernatorial appointment, judges serve a single term
Gubernatorial appointment and re-appointment
Gubernatorial appointment, other body re-appoints
Gubernatorial appointment, followed by retention election
Legislative appointment and re-appointment
Non-partisan elections
Partisan elections
Partisan election, followed by retention election

State supreme court

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Processes for selecting state supreme court judges: 
Gubernatorial appointment, judges serve a single term
Gubernatorial appointment and re-appointment
Gubernatorial appointment, other body re-appoints
Gubernatorial appointment, followed by retention election
Legislative appointment and re-appointment
Non-partisan elections
Partisan elections
Partisan election, followed by retention election

In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the highest court in the state judiciary of a U.S. state.

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U.S. state

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Constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50.

Constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50.

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Ownership of federal lands in the 50 states
U.S. states by date of statehood:
The order in which the original 13 states ratified the Constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the Union
A map showing the source languages of state names

All are grounded in republican principles (this being required by the federal constitution), and each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive, legislative, and judicial.

Supreme Court of the United States

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Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal court cases, as well as over state court cases that involve a point of federal law.

State constitution (United States)

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In the United States, each state has its own written constitution.

In the United States, each state has its own written constitution.

Often modeled after the federal Constitution, they outline the structure of the state government and typically establish a bill of rights, an executive branch headed by a governor (and often one or more other officials, such as a lieutenant governor and state attorney general), a state legislature, and state courts, including a state supreme court (a few states have two high courts, one for civil cases, the other for criminal cases).

Title folio from the Connecticut General Statutes, Revision of 1838 (published 1839).

State law (United States)

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In the United States, state law refers to the law of each separate U.S. state.

In the United States, state law refers to the law of each separate U.S. state.

Title folio from the Connecticut General Statutes, Revision of 1838 (published 1839).

The fifty states are separate sovereigns, with their own state constitutions, state governments, and state courts.

Constitution of the United States

Law of the United States

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Nation's Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of the federal government of the United States, as well as various civil liberties.

Nation's Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of the federal government of the United States, as well as various civil liberties.

Constitution of the United States
Members of the United States Congress make federal laws in accordance with the nation's Constitution
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest authority in interpreting the nation's laws and regulations whenever there is a dispute.
Law affects every aspect of American life, including parking lots. Note the citations to statutes on the sign.
The United States Code, the codification of federal statutory law
The Code of Federal Regulations, the codification of federal administrative law
The United States Reports, the official reporter of the U.S. Supreme Court
Volumes of the Thomson West annotated version of the California Penal Code, the codification of criminal law in the state of California
Inside the Boone County Courthouse in Boone County, Arkansas
The Uniform Commercial Code
The Restatement (Second) of Torts, a highly influential restatement of United States tort law

The fifty American states are separate sovereigns, with their own state constitutions, state governments, and state courts.

Federal judiciary of the United States

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One of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

One of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

All federal courts can be readily identified by the words "United States" (abbreviated to "U.S.") in their official names; no state court may include this designation as part of its name.

Expert witness deposition in a mock trial simulation. The court reporter, who is an officer of the court, administers the oath to the deponent.

Deposition (law)

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A deposition in the law of the United States, or examination for discovery in the law of Canada, involves the taking of sworn, out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that may be reduced to a written transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes.

A deposition in the law of the United States, or examination for discovery in the law of Canada, involves the taking of sworn, out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that may be reduced to a written transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes.

Expert witness deposition in a mock trial simulation. The court reporter, who is an officer of the court, administers the oath to the deponent.
Example page from stenographers copy of an expert's deposition from Anderson v. Cryovac

About 35 states use versions of the FRCP in their state courts.

Taos County, New Mexico. Justice of the Peace Montoyo hears a minor case. (1941)

Justice of the peace

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Judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

Judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

Taos County, New Mexico. Justice of the Peace Montoyo hears a minor case. (1941)
Justice of the Peace office in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin

In larger cities, cases may be heard in a municipal court which has jurisdiction only within that city.

Colorado water courts

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The Colorado water courts are specialized state courts of the U.S. state of Colorado.