Statelessness

statelessstateless personstateless personsstateless peopleheimatlosapatridApatridehad nowhere to gono citizenship of any countryno provable nationality
In international law, a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".wikipedia
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Illegal immigration

illegal immigrantillegal immigrantsundocumented immigrants
Not holding proof of nationality—being "undocumented"—is not the same as being stateless, but the lack of identity documents such as a birth certificate can lead to statelessness.
In a 2012 news story, the CSM reported, "The estimated 750,000 Rohingya, one of the most miserable and oppressed minorities in the world, are deeply resentful of their almost complete absence of civil rights in Myanmar. In 1982, the military junta stripped the Rohingya of their Myanmar citizenship, classing them as illegal immigrants and rendering them stateless."

European Convention on Nationality

Strasbourg convention
This norm is stipulated in the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness; appears in several regional human rights treaties, including the American Convention on Human Rights, the European Convention on Nationality, and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; and is implicit in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.
It also requires to "facilitate" the acquisition of nationality by certain persons, including spouses of nationals, children of its nationals born abroad, children one of whose parents has acquired the nationality, children adopted by a national, persons lawfully and habitually resident for a period before the age of eighteen, and stateless persons and refugees lawfully and habitually resident on its territory.

Nansen passport

Nansen passportsLeague of Nations passportLeague of Nations Refugee Passport
Nansen passports, designed in 1922 by founder Fridtjof Nansen, were internationally recognized identity cards issued to stateless refugees.
Nansen passports, originally and officially stateless persons passports, were internationally recognized refugee travel documents from 1922 to 1938, first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees.

Nansen International Office for Refugees

The Nansen International Office for Refugees was an international organization of the League of Nations in charge of refugees from 1930 to 1939.
It is noted for developing the Nansen passport which allowed stateless people to travel between countries.

Al-Kateb v Godwin

Al-Katebindefinite detention of irregular migrants
The High Court of Australia held in Al-Kateb v Godwin that his detention was lawful, even though it would continue indefinitely.
Al-Kateb v Godwin, was a decision of the High Court of Australia, which ruled on 6 August 2004 that the indefinite detention of a stateless person was lawful.

League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeague
The Nansen International Office for Refugees was an international organization of the League of Nations in charge of refugees from 1930 to 1939.
It also established the Nansen passport as a means of identification for stateless people.

The Terminal

KrakozhiaDolores TorresTerminal
The 1994 French film Tombés du ciel and the 2004 American film The Terminal are fictional stories inspired by his experiences.
The United States no longer recognizes Krakozhia as a sovereign nation after the outbreak of a civil war, and Viktor is not permitted to either enter the country or return home as he is now stateless.

Citizenship

citizencitizensburgher
An amendment to the Canadian Citizenship Act (S.C. 2008, c. 14, previously Bill C-37) came into effect on 17 April 2009 and changed the rules for the acquisition of foreign-born Canadian citizenship.
A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander.

Jus soli

birthright citizenshipius solinative-born
Individuals born outside Canada can now become Canadian citizens by descent only if at least one of their parents was either a native-born citizen or a naturalised citizen of Canada.
Jus soli in many cases helps prevent statelessness.

Refugee

refugeesrefugee statusasylum
Nansen passports, designed in 1922 by founder Fridtjof Nansen, were internationally recognized identity cards issued to stateless refugees. The Nansen International Office for Refugees was an international organization of the League of Nations in charge of refugees from 1930 to 1939. Some stateless people are also refugees.
Moreover, the UNHCR also provides protection and assistance to other categories of displaced persons: asylum seekers, refugees who returned home voluntarily but still need help rebuilding their lives, local civilian communities directly affected by large refugee movements, stateless people and so-called internally displaced people (IDPs), as well as people in refugee-like and IDP-like situations.

Latvia

Republic of LatviaLatvianLAT
Today, some of the largest populations of stateless persons are found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, India, Kenya, Latvia, Estonia, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nepal, Brunei, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Thailand.
They have no citizenship of any country, and cannot vote in Latvia.

Eliana Rubashkyn

Eliana Rubashkyn, a transgender woman and refugee, became de facto stateless in 2013 after being detained for over eight months on the grounds that her appearance did not match her passport photo.
Eliana Rubashkyn (born 25 June 1988) is a Colombian–born, former stateless, New Zealander, known internationally for being the first birth-assigned male intersex person legally recognised as a woman with a U.N. resolution under the international refugee statute.

Fridtjof Nansen

NansenFritjof NansenNansen, Fridtjof
Nansen passports, designed in 1922 by founder Fridtjof Nansen, were internationally recognized identity cards issued to stateless refugees.
To overcome this, Nansen devised a document that became known as the "Nansen passport", a form of identity for stateless persons that was in time recognised by more than 50 governments, and which allowed refugees to cross borders legally.

British Overseas citizen

British Overseas citizenshipBritish OverseasBritish Overseas Citizens
BDTCs who did not become Chinese citizens and did not apply for BN(O) status while holding no other citizenship became British Overseas citizens (BOCs).
However, individuals who only hold BOC nationality are effectively stateless as they are not guaranteed the right to enter the country in which they are nationals.

Bruneian International Certificate of Identity

International Certificate of Identity
Stateless permanent residents of Brunei are given an International Certificate of Identity, which allows them to travel overseas.

Albert Einstein

EinsteinEinsteinianA. Einstein
In rare cases, individuals may become stateless upon renouncing their citizenship (e.g., "world citizen" Garry Davis and, from 1896 to 1901, Albert Einstein, who, in January 1896, at the age of 16, was released from his Württemberg citizenship after, with his father's help, filing a petition to that effect; in February 1901 his application for Swiss citizenship was accepted ).

Naturalization

naturalizednaturalized citizennaturalised
Individuals born outside Canada can now become Canadian citizens by descent only if at least one of their parents was either a native-born citizen or a naturalised citizen of Canada.
The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.

Palestinians

PalestinianPalestinian ArabPalestinian people
Kuwait also expelled some 400,000 Palestinians during the Iraq War.
Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country.

Garry Davis

In rare cases, individuals may become stateless upon renouncing their citizenship (e.g., "world citizen" Garry Davis and, from 1896 to 1901, Albert Einstein, who, in January 1896, at the age of 16, was released from his Württemberg citizenship after, with his father's help, filing a petition to that effect; in February 1901 his application for Swiss citizenship was accepted ).

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

1951 Refugee ConventionRefugee Convention1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was adopted on 28 July 1951.

Myanmar

BurmaBurmeseBurma (Myanmar)
Today, some of the largest populations of stateless persons are found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, India, Kenya, Latvia, Estonia, Malaysia, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nepal, Brunei, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Thailand.
As of July 2012, the Myanmar Government does not include the Rohingya minority group—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982—on the government's list of more than 130 ethnic races and, therefore, the government states that they have no claim to Myanmar citizenship.

British nationality law

BritishBritish citizenBritish citizenship
However, British nationality law allows BN(O)s and BOCs who are otherwise stateless to register for full British citizenship.
They can be passed to children only in exceptional circumstances, e.g., if the child would otherwise be stateless.

Hong Kong International Airport

Hong KongAirportHong Kong Airport
She suffered mistreatment in detention at Chep Lap Kok Airport and in Kowloon's Queen Elizabeth Hospital.
On 31 July 2000, Todd Salimuchai, a regularised illegal immigrant in Hong Kong with no provable nationality, forced his way through a security checkpoint using a fake pistol, took a woman hostage, and boarded a Cathay Pacific aircraft.

Port of entry

airport of entryports of entryPort of Entry and Clearance
Some stateless people have received widespread public attention in airports due to their status as ports of entry.
Some cases of statelessness have occurred in airports of entry, forcing people to stay there for an extended period.

Special administrative regions of China

Special Administrative Regionspecial administrative regionsSpecial Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Hong Kong, as a special administrative region of China, does not have its own citizenship laws.
SAR permanent residents who are not Chinese citizens (including stateless persons) are not eligible for SAR passports.