Statin

statinsHMG-CoA reductase inhibitorHMG-CoA reductase inhibitorsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitorhydroxymethylglutaryl-coa reductase inhibitorsmedications to control cholesterolmevalonate inhibitionregulationstatin drugs
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications that reduce illness and mortality in those who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.wikipedia
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Atorvastatin

LipitorAtorvastatin Calciummodern drugs
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Atorvastatin, sold under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a statin medication used to prevent cardiovascular disease in those at high risk and treat abnormal lipid levels.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease via the mechanisms described by the lipid hypothesis.
Treatment of established disease may include medications to lower cholesterol such as statins, blood pressure medication, or medications that decrease clotting, such as aspirin.

Lovastatin

mevinolinMevacorAltocor
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Lovastatin, sold under the brand name Mevacor among others, is a statin medication, to treat high blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Rosuvastatin

Crestor
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Rosuvastatin, sold under the trade name Crestor among others, is a statin medication, used to prevent cardiovascular disease in those at high risk and treat abnormal lipids.

Fluvastatin

lescol
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Fluvastatin is a member of the statin drug class, used to treat hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Pravastatin

elisorPravacholPravastatin sodium
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Pravastatin, sold under the brand name Pravachol among others, is a statin medication, used preventing cardiovascular disease in those at high risk and treating abnormal lipids.

Cholesterol

total cholesteroldietary cholesterolserum cholesterol
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease via the mechanisms described by the lipid hypothesis. They inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol.
This begins with the mevalonate or HMG-CoA reductase pathway, the target of statin drugs, which encompasses the first 18 steps.

Pitavastatin

There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
Pitavastatin (usually as a calcium salt) is a member of the blood cholesterol lowering medication class of statins.

Ezetimibe/simvastatin

VytorinSimvastatin and ezetimibe
Several combination preparations of a statin and another agent, such as ezetimibe/simvastatin, are also available.
It is a combination of ezetimibe (known as Zetia in the United States) and the statin drug simvastatin (known as Zocor in the U.S.).

Simvastatin

Zocorsimvastatin acid
There are various forms of statins, some of which include atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin.
It is in the statin class of medications and works by decreasing the manufacture of cholesterol by the liver.

HMG-CoA reductase

HMG CoA reductasebeta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductaseHMGCoA reductase
They inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol.
This enzyme is thus the target of the widely available cholesterol-lowering drugs known collectively as the statins.

Lipid-lowering agent

hypolipidemic agenthypolipidemicantihyperlipidemic
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications that reduce illness and mortality in those who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalspharmaceutical drug
The best-selling statin is atorvastatin, also known as Lipitor, which in 2003 became the best-selling pharmaceutical in history.

Familial hypercholesterolemia

familial hypercholesterolaemiahypercholesterolemia, familialhereditary high cholesterol
In children statins are effective at reducing cholesterol levels in those with familial hypercholesterolemia.
Since the underlying body biochemistry is slightly different in individuals with FH, their high cholesterol levels are less responsive to the kinds of cholesterol control methods which are usually more effective in people without FH (such as dietary modification and statin tablets).

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
On average, statins can lower LDL cholesterol by 1.8 mmol/l (70 mg/dl), which translates into an estimated 60% decrease in the number of cardiac events (heart attack, sudden cardiac death) and a 17% reduced risk of stroke after long-term treatment.
Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.

Lipid hypothesis

a diet which included large amounts of butter, lard, eggs, and beef would lead to coronary heart diseaseeffects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease via the mechanisms described by the lipid hypothesis.
A small number of "cholesterol skeptics", particularly those in The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS), take a contrary position to the accepted scientific consensus of the lipid hypothesis, claiming instead that heart disease is not caused by cholesterol, and demonizing the cholesterol-lowering drugs statins.

Framingham Risk Score

cardiovascular risk factorsFramingham ScoreFramingham Stroke Risk Score
Statins are usually used to lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce risk for illnesses related to atherosclerosis, with a varying degree of effect depending on underlying risk factors and history of cardiovascular disease.
Lifestyle changes can include stopping smoking, healthy diet, regular exercise, etc. Preventive medical treatment can include a statin, mini dose aspirin, treatment for hypertension, etc. It is important to be able to predict the risk of an individual patient, in order to decide when to initiate lifestyle modification and preventive medical treatment.

Gemfibrozil

GemhexalLopid
However, the risk was over 10-fold greater if cerivastatin was used, or if the standard statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, or simvastatin) were combined with a fibrate (fenofibrate or gemfibrozil) treatment.
Its is generally less preferred than statins.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseasecardiovascular
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications that reduce illness and mortality in those who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormal blood levels of liver enzymes.

Coenzyme Q10

ubiquinonecoenzyme Qcoenzyme Q 10
This could be due to the statins inhibiting the enzyme (HMG-CoA reductase), which is necessary to make cholesterol, but also for other processes, such as CoQ 10 production, which is important for muscle function and sugar regulation.
It has been suggested that the myotoxicity of statins is due to impairment of CoQ biosynthesis, but the evidence supporting this was deemed controversial in 2011.

Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy

Serious muscle problems such as rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscle cells) and statin-associated autoimmune myopathy occur in less than 0.1% of treated people.
Statin-associated autoimmune myopathy (SAAM) is a very rare but serious form of muscle damage caused by the immune system in people who take statin medications.

Fenofibrate

TricorLipidilprocetofen
However, the risk was over 10-fold greater if cerivastatin was used, or if the standard statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, or simvastatin) were combined with a fibrate (fenofibrate or gemfibrozil) treatment.
It is less preferred to statin medications as it does not appear to reduce the risk of heart disease or death.

Pfizer

Pfizer Inc.Pfizer, Inc.Pfizer Inc
The manufacturer Pfizer reported sales of US$12.4billion in 2008.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carriers of cholesterol play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease via the mechanisms described by the lipid hypothesis.