# Statistics

Discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.

- Statistics111 related topics

## Descriptive statistics

Summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features from a collection of information, while descriptive statistics (in the mass noun sense) is the process of using and analysing those statistics.

Summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features from a collection of information, while descriptive statistics (in the mass noun sense) is the process of using and analysing those statistics.

The use of descriptive and summary statistics has an extensive history and, indeed, the simple tabulation of populations and of economic data was the first way the topic of statistics appeared.

## Economics

Social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Statistical methods such as regression analysis are common.

## Probability theory

Branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

Branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to many human activities that involve quantitative analysis of data.

## Causality

Influence by which one event, process, state, or object (a cause) contributes to the production of another event, process, state, or object ( an effect) where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause.

Influence by which one event, process, state, or object (a cause) contributes to the production of another event, process, state, or object ( an effect) where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause.

Statistics and economics usually employ pre-existing data or experimental data to infer causality by regression methods.

## Consistent estimator

In statistics, a consistent estimator or asymptotically consistent estimator is an estimator—a rule for computing estimates of a parameter θ0—having the property that as the number of data points used increases indefinitely, the resulting sequence of estimates converges in probability to θ0.

## Errors and residuals

In statistics and optimization, errors and residuals are two closely related and easily confused measures of the deviation of an observed value of an element of a statistical sample from its "true value" (not necessarily observable).

## Data set

Collection of data.

Collection of data.

In statistics, data sets usually come from actual observations obtained by sampling a statistical population, and each row corresponds to the observations on one element of that population.

## Time series

Series of data points indexed in time order.

Series of data points indexed in time order.

Time series are used in statistics, signal processing, pattern recognition, econometrics, mathematical finance, weather forecasting, earthquake prediction, electroencephalography, control engineering, astronomy, communications engineering, and largely in any domain of applied science and engineering which involves temporal measurements.

## Statistical population

In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.