Statistics

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.
Scatter plots are used in descriptive statistics to show the observed relationships between different variables, here using the Iris flower data set.
Gerolamo Cardano, a pioneer on the mathematics of probability.
Karl Pearson, a founder of mathematical statistics.
A least squares fit: in red the points to be fitted, in blue the fitted line.
Confidence intervals: the red line is true value for the mean in this example, the blue lines are random confidence intervals for 100 realizations.
In this graph the black line is probability distribution for the test statistic, the critical region is the set of values to the right of the observed data point (observed value of the test statistic) and the p-value is represented by the green area.
The confounding variable problem: X and Y may be correlated, not because there is causal relationship between them, but because both depend on a third variable Z. Z is called a confounding factor.
gretl, an example of an open source statistical package

Discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.

- Statistics
The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

111 related topics

Alpha

The Old Farmer's Almanac is famous in the US for its (not necessarily accurate) long-range weather predictions.

Prediction

Statement about a future event or data.

Statement about a future event or data.

The Old Farmer's Almanac is famous in the US for its (not necessarily accurate) long-range weather predictions.
Prediction market.
Approval ratings (percentages) for the 2004 Canadian federal election

In statistics, prediction is a part of statistical inference.

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

Generalized linear model

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

In statistics, a generalized linear model (GLM) is a flexible generalization of ordinary linear regression.

Ronald Fisher in 1912

The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance

Scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, .

Scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, .

Ronald Fisher in 1912
Karl Pearson

The paper also contains the first use of the statistical term variance.

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

Categorical variable

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

In statistics, a categorical variable (also called qualitative variable) is a variable that can take on one of a limited, and usually fixed, number of possible values, assigning each individual or other unit of observation to a particular group or nominal category on the basis of some qualitative property.

Some of the different types of data.

Data

Some of the different types of data.
Adrien Auzout's "A TABLE of the Apertures of Object-Glasses" from a 1665 article in Philosophical Transactions

Data are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric.

A stained-glass window in the dining hall of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge commemorated Ronald Fisher and represented a 7 × 7 Latin square. The Sir Ronald Fisher window was removed in 2020 because of Fisher's connection with eugenics.

The Design of Experiments

A stained-glass window in the dining hall of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge commemorated Ronald Fisher and represented a 7 × 7 Latin square. The Sir Ronald Fisher window was removed in 2020 because of Fisher's connection with eugenics.

The Design of Experiments is a 1935 book by the English statistician Ronald Fisher about the design of experiments and is considered a foundational work in experimental design.

The experiment asked whether a taster could tell if the milk was added before the brewed tea, when preparing a cup of tea.

Lady tasting tea

The experiment asked whether a taster could tell if the milk was added before the brewed tea, when preparing a cup of tea.
Ronald Fisher in 1913

In the design of experiments in statistics, the lady tasting tea is a randomized experiment devised by Ronald Fisher and reported in his book The Design of Experiments (1935).

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

Efficiency (statistics)

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

In the comparison of various statistical procedures, efficiency is a measure of quality of an estimator, of an experimental design, or of a hypothesis testing procedure.

Figure A: Line graph example. The birth rate in Brazil (2010–2016); Figure B: Bar chart example. The birth rate in Brazil for the December months from 2010 to 2016; Figure C: Example of Box Plot: number of glycines in the proteome of eight different organisms (A-H); Figure D: Example of a scatter plot.

Biostatistics

Figure A: Line graph example. The birth rate in Brazil (2010–2016); Figure B: Bar chart example. The birth rate in Brazil for the December months from 2010 to 2016; Figure C: Example of Box Plot: number of glycines in the proteome of eight different organisms (A-H); Figure D: Example of a scatter plot.
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Scatter diagram that demonstrates the Pearson correlation for different values of ρ.

Biostatistics (also known as biometry) are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology.

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

Central tendency

The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.

In statistics, a central tendency (or measure of central tendency) is a central or typical value for a probability distribution.