A report on Status epilepticus

Generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram
Diazepam that can be inserted rectally is often prescribed to caregivers of people with epilepsy. This enables treatment of multiple seizures prior to being able to seek medical care.

Single seizure lasting more than 5 minutes or 2 or more seizures within a 5-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

- Status epilepticus
Generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram

19 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Carbamazepine

Anticonvulsant

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Anticonvulsants (also known as antiepileptic drugs or recently as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Anticonvulsants (also known as antiepileptic drugs or recently as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Carbamazepine

Paraldehyde (1882). One of the earliest anticonvulsants. It is still used to treat status epilepticus, particularly where there are no resuscitation facilities.

0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam

Lorazepam

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Benzodiazepine medication.

Benzodiazepine medication.

0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam
1987 advertisement. "In a world where certainties are few...no wonder Ativan is prescribed by so many caring clinicians."

It is used to treat anxiety disorders, trouble sleeping, severe agitation, active seizures including status epilepticus, alcohol withdrawal, and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Phenobarbital

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Medication of the barbiturate type.

Medication of the barbiturate type.

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The injectable form may be used to treat status epilepticus.

Generalized 3 Hz spike and wave discharges in EEG

Seizure

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Period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Generalized 3 Hz spike and wave discharges in EEG
An individual who has bitten the tip of their tongue while having a seizure
An EEG can aid in locating the focus of the epileptic seizure.

Any seizure lasting longer than five minutes should be treated as status epilepticus.

The mechanism of action of phenytoin sodium. Sodium channels are: 1) Closed 2) Open 3) Inactive (phenytoin effect)

Phenytoin

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Anti-seizure medication.

Anti-seizure medication.

The mechanism of action of phenytoin sodium. Sodium channels are: 1) Closed 2) Open 3) Inactive (phenytoin effect)

The intravenous form, fosphenytoin, is used for status epilepticus that does not improve with benzodiazepines.

Propofol

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Short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events.

Short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events.

A 20 ml ampoule of 1% propofol emulsion, as sold in Australia by Sandoz

It is also used for status epilepticus if other medications have not worked.

Generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram

Epilepsy

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Group of non-communicable neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures.

Group of non-communicable neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures.

Generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram
A still image of a generalized seizure
A bite to the tip of the tongue due to a seizure
An EEG can aid in locating the focus of the epileptic seizure.
Revised operational scheme of seizure classification, ILAE, 2017
Wristbands or bracelets denoting their condition are occasionally worn by epileptics should they need medical assistance.
Anticonvulsants
Deaths due to epilepsy per million persons in 2012
Hippocrates, 17th century engraving by Peter Paul Rubens of an antique bust

If a seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or if there are more than two seizures in an hour without a return to a normal level of consciousness between them, it is considered a medical emergency known as status epilepticus.

Midazolam

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Benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, and severe agitation.

Benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, and severe agitation.

Injectable midazolam in 1 and 5 mg/ml strengths
Oklahoma State Penitentiary, the site of the state of Oklahoma's execution chamber

A benefit of midazolam is that in children it can be given in the cheek or in the nose for acute seizures, including status epilepticus.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

As in humans, they are used in the first-line management of seizures, status epilepticus, and tetanus, and as maintenance therapy in epilepsy (in particular, in cats).

Clonazepam

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Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Brand name clonazepam tablets
Klonopin 0.5 mg tablet
Klonopin 1 mg tablet
Klonopin 2 mg tablet
Clonazepam orally disintegrating tablet, 0.25 mg

Clonazepam has been found to be effective in the acute control of non-convulsive status epilepticus; however, the benefits tended to be transient in many people, and the addition of phenytoin for lasting control was required in these patients.