Stealth technology

stealthstealthyinvisible aircraftlow observablesignature managementStealth Bombersstealthiercloakinglow radar observablelow-observable
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.wikipedia
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Stealth aircraft

stealthstealth fighterstealth bomber
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

Stealth ship

stealthstealth technologystealth boat
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. the Norwegian Skjold-class corvette was the first coastal defence and the French La Fayette-class frigate the first ocean-going stealth ship to enter service.
A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.

Stealth ground vehicle

ground vehiclesstealthstealth technology
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Ground vehicles using stealth technology have come to fruition at various times in history.

Multi-spectral camouflage

thermal camouflagecamouflage systemmask its heat signature
It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., multi-spectral camouflage).
Multi-spectral camouflage is the use of counter-surveillance techniques to conceal objects from detection across several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum at the same time.

Military camouflage

camouflagecamouflageddigital camouflage
It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., multi-spectral camouflage).
Collectively these are known as stealth technology.

Submarine

submarinesdiesel-electric submarinediesel-electric
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Modern submarines are built with an emphasis on stealth.

German submarine U-480

U-480U480
The U-boat U-480 may have been the first stealth submarine.
Considered by many to be the first stealth submarine, it was equipped with a special rubber coating (codenamed Alberich, after the German mythological character who had the ability to become invisible), that made it difficult to detect with British ASDIC (sonar).

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Radar absorbing material, containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances, is used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection.

Radiation-absorbent material

radar-absorbent materialradar absorbent materialiron ball paint
Radiation-absorbent material was also tested and made to reduce or block radar signals that reflect off the surfaces of aircraft.
Radar-absorbent materials are used in stealth technology to disguise a vehicle or structure from radar detection.

Northrop Tacit Blue

Tacit BlueBattlefield Surveillance Aircraft-ExperimentalF-117D
Also the Northrop Grumman Tacit Blue played a part in the development of composite material and curvilinear surfaces, low observables, fly-by-wire, and other stealth technology innovations.
The Northrop Tacit Blue was a technology demonstrator aircraft created to demonstrate that a low-observable stealth surveillance aircraft with a low-probability-of-intercept radar (LPIR) and other sensors could operate close to the forward line of battle with a high degree of survivability.

Infrared signature

infraredInfra-red suppressioninfrared (IR) signature
Some military uniforms are treated with chemicals to reduce their infrared signature.
Infrared stealth is an area of stealth technology aimed at reducing infrared signatures.

Yehudi lights

The concept was followed up for aircraft by the Americans and the British: in 1945 a Grumman Avenger with Yehudi lights reached 3000 yd from a ship before being sighted.
With more recent improvements in stealth technology, Yehudi lights have again attracted interest.

Invisibility

invisibleCloakinginvisibly
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.

Ryan Firebee

Ryan AQM-34 FirebeeAQM-34Ryan BQM-34 Firebee
In 1960, the USAF reduced the radar cross-section of a Ryan Q-2C Firebee drone.
In 1960 the first stealth technology development program was initiated by USAF, by reducing the radar cross-section of a Q-2C drone.

Avro Vulcan

VulcanVulcan bomberAvro Vulcan B.2
The Avro Vulcan, a British bomber of the 1960s, had a remarkably small appearance on radar despite its large size, and occasionally disappeared from radar screens entirely.
Despite being designed before a low radar cross-section (RCS) and other stealth factors were ever a consideration, a Royal Aircraft Establishment technical note of 1957 stated that of all the aircraft so far studied, the Vulcan appeared by far the simplest radar echoing object, due to its shape: only one or two components contributed significantly to the echo at any aspect, compared with three or more on most other types.

Tuo Chiang-class corvette

CS/SPG-6Tuo Chiang stealth corvette900-ton stealth corvette
Other examples are the Taiwanese Tuo Chiang stealth corvette, German Sachsen-class frigates, the Swedish Visby-class corvette, the USS San Antonio amphibious transport dock, and most modern warship designs.
The Tuo Chiang-class corvette is a Taiwanese-designed class of fast (up to 45 kn) and stealthy multi-mission corvettes built for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy.

Northrop YF-23

YF-23YF-23 Black Widow IIYF-23A
The YF-23 has such serrations on the exhaust ports.
The ATF was to take advantage of emerging technologies, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology.

Arleigh Burke-class destroyer

Arleigh Burke''-classArleigh Burke''-class destroyerArleigh Burke class destroyer
Though the earlier Arleigh Burke-class destroyer incorporated some signature-reduction features.
The Arleigh Burke design incorporates stealth techniques, such as the angled rather than traditional vertical surfaces and the tripod mainmast, which make the ship more difficult to detect, in particular by antiship missiles.

Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk

F-117 NighthawkF-117F-117A Nighthawk
This was applied by Lockheed in computer simulation to design a novel shape they called the "Hopeless Diamond", a wordplay on the Hope Diamond, securing contractual rights to produce the F-117 Nighthawk starting in 1975.
The Nighthawk was the first operational aircraft to be designed around stealth technology.

La Fayette-class frigate

La Fayette''-class frigateLa Fayette'' class frigatesAl Riyadh class
the Norwegian Skjold-class corvette was the first coastal defence and the French La Fayette-class frigate the first ocean-going stealth ship to enter service.
At the time of their commissioning, the units of the La Fayette class were the state of the art in stealth for warships.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird

SR-71 BlackbirdSR-71Lockheed SR-71
This method was first used on the Blackbird series: A-12, YF-12A, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.
Drawing on early studies in radar stealth technology, which indicated that a shape with flattened, tapering sides would reflect most energy away from a radar beam's place of origin, engineers added chines and canted the vertical control surfaces inward.

Radar cross-section

radar cross sectionradar signatureRCS
In 1956 the CIA began attempts to reduce the radar cross-section (RCS) of the U-2 spyplane.
RCS is integral to the development of radar stealth technology, particularly in applications involving aircraft and ballistic missiles.

Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

B-2 SpiritB-2B-2 stealth bomber
Such changes to shape and surface composition comprise stealth technology as currently used on the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber".
The B-2's low-observable, or "stealth", characteristics enable the undetected penetration of sophisticated anti-aircraft defenses and to attack even heavily defended targets.

Flying wing

flying-wingbi-directional flying wingblended wing-body
The B-2's clean, low-drag flying wing configuration gives it exceptional range and reduces its radar profile.
Stealth technology relies on shapes that reflect radar waves only in certain directions, thus making the aircraft hard to detect unless the radar receiver is at a specific position relative to the aircraft—a position that changes continuously as the aircraft moves.

Plasma stealth

Plasma stealth is a phenomenon proposed to use ionized gas, termed a plasma, to reduce RCS of vehicles.
Interactions between electromagnetic radiation and ionized gas have been extensively studied for many purposes, including concealing aircraft from radar as stealth technology.