Stealth technology

stealthstealthystealthierinvisible aircraftlow observablesignature managementstealth technologiescloakinglow radar observablelow-observable
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.wikipedia
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Stealth aircraft

stealthstealth fighterstealth bomber
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

Stealth ship

stealthstealth boatstealth features
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. Though the earlier Arleigh Burke-class destroyer incorporated some signature-reduction features., the Norwegian Skjold-class corvette was the first coastal defence and the French La Fayette-class frigate the first ocean-going stealth ship to enter service.
A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.

Stealth ground vehicle

ground vehiclesstealthstealth technology
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Ground vehicles using stealth technology have come to fruition at various times in history.

Multi-spectral camouflage

thermal camouflagecamouflage systemmask its heat signature
It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (Multi-spectral camouflage).
Multi-spectral camouflage is the use of counter-surveillance techniques to conceal objects from detection across several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum at the same time.

Military camouflage

camouflagecamouflageddigital camouflage
It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (Multi-spectral camouflage).
Collectively these are known as stealth technology.

German submarine U-480

U-480U480
The U-boat U-480 may have been the first stealth submarine.
Considered by many to be the first stealth submarine, it was equipped with a special rubber coating (codenamed Alberich, after the German mythological character who had the ability to become invisible), that made it difficult to detect with British ASDIC (sonar).

Submarine

submarinesdiesel-electric submarinediesel-electric
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Modern submarines are built with an emphasis on stealth.

Invisibility

invisibleCloakinginvisibly
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Though stealth technology is declared to be invisible to radar, all officially disclosed applications of the technology can only reduce the size and/or clarity of the signature detected by radar.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Stealth technology also termed low observable technology (LO technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and also active electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites and ground vehicles to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
Radar absorbing material, containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances, is used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection.

Radar cross-section

radar cross sectionradar signatureRCS
Equations outlined in the paper quantified how a plane's shape would affect its detectability by radar, its radar cross-section (RCS).
RCS is integral to the development of radar stealth technology, particularly in applications involving aircraft and ballistic missiles.

Radiation-absorbent material

radar-absorbent materialradar absorbent materialiron ball paint
Radar-absorbent material was also tested and made to reduce or block radar signals that reflect off from the surface of planes.
Radar-absorbent RAM is used in stealth technology to disguise a vehicle or structure from radar detection.

Northrop Tacit Blue

F-117DTacit Blue
Also the Northrop Grumman Tacit Blue played a part in the development of composite material and curvilinear surfaces, as well as Low Observables, fly-by-wire, and other stealth technology innovations.
The Northrop Tacit Blue was a technology demonstrator aircraft created to demonstrate that a low-observable stealth surveillance aircraft with a low probability of intercept radar and other sensors could operate close to the forward line of battle with a high degree of survivability.

Infrared signature

infraredheat signaturesInfra-red suppression
Some military uniforms are treated with chemicals to reduce their infrared signature.
Infrared stealth is an area of stealth technology aimed at reducing infrared signatures.

Yehudi lights

The concept was followed up, but for aircraft, by the Americans and the British: in 1945 a Grumman Avenger with Yehudi lights, reached 3000 yd from a ship before being sighted.
With more recent improvements in stealth technology, Yehudi lights have again attracted interest.

Ryan Firebee

BQM-34S Firebee IFirebeeRyan BQM-34A Firebee
In 1960, the USAF reduced the radar-cross-section of a Ryan Q-2C Firebee drone.
In 1960 the first stealth technology development program was initiated by USAF, by reducing the radar cross-section of a Q-2C drone.

Sachsen-class frigate

Sachsen''-classSachsen''-class frigateSachsen class
Other examples are the Taiwanese Tuo Chiang stealth corvette, German Sachsen-class frigates, the Swedish Visby-class corvette, the USS San Antonio amphibious transport dock, and most modern warship designs.
The design of the Sachsen-class frigate is based on that of the F123 but with enhanced stealth features designed to deceive an opponent's radar and acoustic sensors.

Avro Vulcan

VulcanVulcan bomberVulcan bombers
The Avro Vulcan, a British bomber of the 1960s, had a remarkably small appearance on radar despite its large size, and occasionally disappeared from radar screens entirely.
Despite being designed before a low radar cross-section (RCS) and other stealth factors were ever a consideration, a Royal Aircraft Establishment technical note of 1957 stated that of all the aircraft so far studied, the Vulcan appeared by far the simplest radar echoing object, due to its shape: only one or two components contributed significantly to the echo at any aspect, compared with three or more on most other types.

Northrop YF-23

YF-23F-23
The YF-23 has such serrations on the exhaust ports.
The ATF was to take advantage of emerging technologies, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology.

Arleigh Burke-class destroyer

Arleigh Burke''-classArleigh Burke''-class destroyerArleigh Burke
Though the earlier Arleigh Burke-class destroyer incorporated some signature-reduction features., the Norwegian Skjold-class corvette was the first coastal defence and the French La Fayette-class frigate the first ocean-going stealth ship to enter service.
The Arleigh Burke design incorporates stealth techniques, such as the angled rather than traditional vertical surfaces and the tripod mainmast, which make the ship more difficult to detect, in particular by antiship missiles.

La Fayette-class frigate

La Fayette''-class frigateLa Fayette'' class frigatesLa Fayette
Though the earlier Arleigh Burke-class destroyer incorporated some signature-reduction features., the Norwegian Skjold-class corvette was the first coastal defence and the French La Fayette-class frigate the first ocean-going stealth ship to enter service.
At the time of their commissioning, the units of the La Fayette class were the state of the art in stealth for warships.

Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk

F-117F-117 NighthawkF-117A Nighthawk
This was applied by Lockheed in computer simulation to design a novel shape they called the "Hopeless Diamond", a wordplay on the Hope Diamond, securing contractual rights to produce the F-117 Nighthawk starting in 1975.
The Nighthawk was the first operational aircraft to be designed around stealth technology.

Diffused lighting camouflage

diffused lighting
Diffused lighting camouflage, a shipborne form of counter-illumination camouflage, was trialled by the Royal Canadian Navy from 1941 to 1943.
Stealth technology

Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

B-2B-2 SpiritB-2 stealth bomber
Such changes to shape and surface composition form stealth technology as currently used on the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber".
The B-2's low-observable, or "stealth", characteristics enable the undetected penetration of sophisticated anti-aircraft defenses and to attack even heavily defended targets.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird

SR-71SR-71 BlackbirdLockheed SR-71A Blackbird
This method was first used on the Blackbird series (A-12/YF-12A/Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird).
Drawing on early studies in radar stealth technology, which indicated that a shape with flattened, tapering sides would reflect most energy away from a radar beam's place of origin, engineers added chines and canted the vertical control surfaces inward.

Flying wing

flying-wingbi-directional flying wingFlying wing plane
The B-2's clean, low-drag flying wing configuration not only gives it exceptional range but also reduces its radar profile.
Stealth technology relies on shapes that reflect radar waves only in certain directions, thus making the aircraft hard to detect unless the radar receiver is at a specific position relative to the aircraft—a position that changes continuously as the aircraft moves.