Stem cell

stem cellsstem cell researchstem-cell researchstem cell biologystem-cellpluripotent stem cellsstemself-renewalstemnessembryonic stem-cell research
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.wikipedia
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Adult stem cell

adult stem cellsadult stem cell researchadult
In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts in early embryonic development, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues of fully developed mammals.
Also known as somatic stem cells (from Greek Σωματικóς, meaning of the body), they can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and humans, unlike embryonic stem cells.

Telomerase

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Telomerase is active in normal stem cells.
Telomerase is active in normal stem cells, in gametes and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells.

Progenitor cell

progenitor cellsprogenitorprogenitors
In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues.
A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.

University of Toronto

TorontoToronto UniversityThe University of Toronto
Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness.

Bone marrow

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bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood.
Additionally, bone marrow stem cells have been successfully transformed into functional neural cells, and can also potentially be used to treat illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Cord blood

umbilical cord bloodumbilical cord blood transplantationCord Blood Registry
Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth.
Cord blood is collected because it contains stem cells, which can be used to treat hematopoietic and genetic disorders.

James Till

James E. TillJames Edgar TillJim Till
Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
James Edgar Till, (born August 25, 1931) is a University of Toronto biophysicist, best known for demonstrating – with Ernest McCulloch – the existence of stem cells.

Asymmetric cell division

asymmetricasymmetricallyasymmetric divisions
1. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated.
Notably, stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to two distinct daughter cells: one copy of the original stem cell as well as a second daughter programmed to differentiate into a non-stem cell fate.

Hematopoietic stem cell

hematopoietic stem cellsPluripotential hemopoietic stem cellhaematopoietic stem cell
For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.

Ernest McCulloch

Ernest A. McCullochErnest A McCullochMcCulloch
Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Ernest Armstrong McCulloch, (27 April 1926 – 20 January 2011) was a University of Toronto cellular biologist, best known for demonstrating – with James Till – the existence of stem cells.

Immortalised cell line

cell linecell linesimmortalized cell line
Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.
An immortalised cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

therapeutic cloningsomatic-cell nuclear transfercloning
Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.
"Therapeutic cloning" refers to the potential use of SCNT in regenerative medicine; this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are.

Neural stem cell

neural stemneural precursor cellneural progenitor cells
At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell.
Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types.

Cell culture

cultureculturedcell line
Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves.
Research in tissue engineering, stem cells and molecular biology primarily involves cultures of cells on flat plastic dishes.

Human embryonic development

human embryoembryogenesishuman embryogenesis
In human embryonic development the blastocyst stage is reached 4–5 days after fertilization, at which time it consists of 50–150 cells.
The inner cell mass is the source of embryonic stem cells, which are pluripotent and can develop into any one of the three germ layer cells, and which have the potency to give rise to all the tissues and organs.

Embryo

embryosembryonalhuman embryos
In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo.
Meristems (centers of stem cell activity) develop during the torpedo stage, and will eventually produce many of the mature tissues of the adult plant throughout its life.

Blastocyst

blastocyststhe blastocyst
In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts in early embryonic development, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues of fully developed mammals. In human embryonic development the blastocyst stage is reached 4–5 days after fertilization, at which time it consists of 50–150 cells.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others.

Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in females), termed meiosis, is different from that of the division of somatic cells in the body.

Endothelial stem cell

endothelialendothelial stem cells
Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow.

Regenerative medicine

regenerativeTR BioSurgicalregeneration
Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.
Some of the biomedical approaches within the field of regenerative medicine may involve the use of stem cells.

Dental pulp stem cells

dental pulp stem cell
Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, which is the soft living tissue within teeth.

Stem cell controversy

embryonic stem cell researchstem cell researchcontroversial
The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo.
Not all stem cell research involves human embryos.

Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system.
These are progenitors of stem cells, and critical to coordinating the functions of cellular components.

Amniotic stem cells

amniotic stem cellamniotic fluid stem cells
Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.
Amniotic stem cells are the mixture of stem cells that can be obtained from the amniotic fluid as well as the amniotic membrane.