Sternum

manubriumbreastbonesternalbreast bonesternal platesmanubrium sternisternasternal platebody of sternumbody of the sternum
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.wikipedia
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Flat bone

flatflat bonesbasal plate
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.
These bones are expanded into broad, flat plates, as in the cranium (skull), the ilium (pelvis), sternum and the rib cage.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
It connects to the ribs via cartilage and forms the front of the rib cage, thus helping to protect the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels from injury.
The back surface of the heart lies near the vertebral column, and the front surface sits behind the sternum and rib cartilages.

Rib

costalcostaerib cage
It connects to the ribs via cartilage and forms the front of the rib cage, thus helping to protect the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels from injury.
At the front of the body most of the ribs are joined by costal cartilages to the sternum.

Thorax

chestthoracicthoraces
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.
The contents of the thorax include the heart and lungs (and the thymus gland); the (major and minor pectoral muscles, trapezius muscles, and neck muscle); and internal structures such as the diaphragm, the esophagus, the trachea, and a part of the sternum known as the xiphoid process).

Xiphoid process

xiphisternumxiphoid cartilagexiphosternal junction
Its three regions are the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process.
The xiphoid process, or xiphisternum or metasternum, is a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower (inferior) part of the sternum, which is usually ossified in the adult human.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
It connects to the ribs via cartilage and forms the front of the rib cage, thus helping to protect the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels from injury.
The apex of the lung extends into the root of the neck, reaching shortly above the level of the sternal end of the first rib.

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

sternocleidomastoidsternocleidomastoideussternocleidomastoideus muscle
It is given the name sternocleidomastoid because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum (sterno-) and the clavicle (cleido-), and has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull.

Clavicle

collarbonecollar boneclavicles
This notch can be felt between the two clavicles.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.

Rib cage

ribsribcagefirst rib
It connects to the ribs via cartilage and forms the front of the rib cage, thus helping to protect the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels from injury.
The rib cage is the arrangement of ribs attached to the vertebral column and sternum in the thorax of most vertebrates, that encloses and protects the heart and lungs.

Sternal angle

Angle of LouisManubriosternal jointsternal angle of Louis
The sternal angle is located at the point where the body joins the manubrium.
The sternal angle (also known as the angle of Louis or manubriosternal junction) is the synarthrotic joint formed by the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum.

Intercostal nerves

intercostal nerveintercostalthird intercostal
The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum.
The 7th intercostal nerve terminates at the xyphoid process, at the lower end of the sternum.

Bone marrow

marrowred bone marrowbone marrow stroma
Because the sternum contains bone marrow, it is sometimes used as a site for bone marrow biopsy.
In adult humans, bone marrow is primarily located in the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and bones of the pelvis.

Transversus thoracis muscle

transversus thoracis
The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum. The posterior surface, slightly concave, is also marked by three transverse lines, less distinct, however, than those in front; from its lower part, on either side, the transversus thoracis takes origin.
It arises on either side from the lower third of the posterior surface of the body of the sternum, from the posterior surface of the xiphoid process, and from the sternal ends of the costal cartilages of the lower three or four true ribs.

Pectoralis major

pectoralpectoral musclepectoralis major muscle
The pectoralis major attaches to it on either side.
The more frequent variations include greater or less extent of attachment to the ribs and sternum, varying size of the abdominal part or its absence, greater or less extent of separation of sternocostal and clavicular parts, fusion of clavicular part with deltoid, and decussation in front of the sternum.

Costal cartilage

costal cartilagesrib cartilageanterior costal cartilage grafts
The lateral borders are each marked above by a depression for the first costal cartilage, and below by a small facet, which, with a similar facet on the upper angle of the body, forms a notch for the reception of the costal cartilage of the second rib. The ossification centers appear in the intervals between the articular depressions for the costal cartilages, in the following order: in the manubrium and first piece of the body, during the sixth month of fetal life; in the second and third pieces of the body, during the seventh month of fetal life; in its fourth piece, during the first year after birth; and in the xiphoid process, between the fifth and eighteenth years.
The first seven pairs are connected with the sternum; the next three are each articulated with the lower border of the cartilage of the preceding rib; the last two have pointed extremities, which end in the wall of the abdomen.

Suprasternal notch

jugular notchsternal notch
The suprasternal notch (jugular notch) is located in the middle at the upper broadest part of the manubrium.
The jugular notch is found at the superior border of the manubrium of the sternum, between the clavicular notches.

Sternal fracture

Fractures of the sternumbroken breastbonebroken sternum
Fractures of the sternum are rather uncommon.
A sternal fracture is a fracture of the sternum (the breastbone), located in the center of the chest.

Pericardium

epicardiumpericardialpericardial cavity
Also, the superior sternopericardial ligament attaches the pericardium to the posterior side of the manubrium.

Sternopericardial ligaments

sternopericardiac ligaments
The fibrous pericardium is attached to the posterior surface of the sternum by the superior and inferior sternopericardiac ligaments (sternopericardial ligaments); the upper passing to the manubrium, and the lower to the xiphoid process.

Sternocostal joints

sternocostalCostosternal jointsternocostal articulation
The cartilages of the top five ribs join with the sternum at the sternocostal joints.

Ossification

ossifiedbone formationosteogenic
The ossification centers appear in the intervals between the articular depressions for the costal cartilages, in the following order: in the manubrium and first piece of the body, during the sixth month of fetal life; in the second and third pieces of the body, during the seventh month of fetal life; in its fourth piece, during the first year after birth; and in the xiphoid process, between the fifth and eighteenth years.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPRresuscitationmouth-to-mouth resuscitation
Improperly performed chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can cause the xiphoid process to snap off, driving it into the liver which can cause a fatal hemorrhage.
These chest compressions create significant local blunt trauma, risking bruising or fracture of the sternum or ribs.

Median sternotomy

sternotomyScar in the middle of the sternum
The breastbone is sometimes cut open (a median sternotomy) to gain access to the thoracic contents when performing cardiothoracic surgery.
Median sternotomy is a type of surgical procedure in which a vertical inline incision is made along the sternum, after which the sternum itself is divided, or "cracked".

Bone marrow examination

bone marrow biopsybone marrow aspirationbone marrow aspirate
Because the sternum contains bone marrow, it is sometimes used as a site for bone marrow biopsy.
An aspirate can also be obtained from the sternum (breastbone).

Pelvis

pelvicpelvic girdlehip
In particular, patients with a high BMI (obese or grossly overweight) may present with excess tissue that makes access to traditional marrow biopsy sites such as the pelvis difficult.
In the medial superficial group, on both sides of the centre of the abdominal wall (the linea alba), the rectus abdominis stretches from the cartilages of ribs V-VII and the sternum down to the pubic crest.