Stimulant

psychostimulantstimulantspsychostimulantsstimulatingpep pilluppersstimulant drugstimulativecentral nervous system stimulantcentral nervous system stimulants
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.wikipedia
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Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription (either legally or illicitly) as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs.
Generally, recreational drugs are in three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calm); stimulants (drugs that induce a sense of energy and alertness); and hallucinogens (drugs that induce perceptual distortions such as hallucination).

Methylphenidate

Ritalin(RS;SR)-Methylphenidatelevomethylphenidate
The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine.
Methylphenidate, sold under the trade names Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has abused amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, etc.) and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%. Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).
Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has abused amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, etc.) and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

Lisdexamfetamine

lisdexamfetamine dimesylatelisdexamphetamineparticular
The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L -lysine-dextroamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription (either legally or illicitly) as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs.
While the Konbaung Dynasty prohibited all intoxicants and stimulants during the reign of King Bodawpaya (1781–1819).

Drug

drugsagentserum
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
They include alcohol, a depressant (and a stimulant in small quantities), and the stimulants nicotine and caffeine.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
When these changes become pathological, they are called arrhythmia, hypertension, and hyperthermia, and may lead to rhabdomyolysis, stroke, cardiac arrest, or seizures.
Users of stimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine are at a high risk for ischemic strokes.

Pseudoephedrine

pseudoephedrine hydrochloridepseudoephedrine tabletsconcealment
Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion caused by the common cold, sinusitis, hay fever and other respiratory allergies; it is also used to relieve ear congestion caused by ear inflammation or infection.
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses.

Modafinil

ProvigilList of modafinil analogues
Neurocognitive enhancing effects of stimulants, specifically modafinil, amphetamine and methylphenidate have been documented in healthy adolescents, and is a commonly cited reason among illicit drug users for use, particularly among college students in the context of studying.
It shares biochemical mechanisms with addictive stimulant drugs, and some studies have reported it to have similar mood-elevating properties, although to a lesser degree.

Substituted amphetamine

amphetaminesamphetaminesubstituted amphetamines
Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of the large number of classes the drugs occupy, and the fact that they may belong to multiple classes; for example, ecstasy can be classified as a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, a substituted amphetamine and consequently, a substituted phenethylamine.
The compounds in this class span a variety of pharmacological subclasses, including stimulants, empathogens, and hallucinogens, among others.

Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine

MDxxList of substituted methylenedioxyphenethylaminesmethylenedioxylated
Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of the large number of classes the drugs occupy, and the fact that they may belong to multiple classes; for example, ecstasy can be classified as a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, a substituted amphetamine and consequently, a substituted phenethylamine.
Substituted methylenedioxy- phenethylamines (MD xx ) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.

Substituted phenethylamine

phenethylaminephenethylaminesphenethylamine class
Classifying stimulants is difficult, because of the large number of classes the drugs occupy, and the fact that they may belong to multiple classes; for example, ecstasy can be classified as a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, a substituted amphetamine and consequently, a substituted phenethylamine.
Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA), appetite suppressants (e.g. phentermine), nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., levomethamphetamine and pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion and phenelzine), antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.

Phentermine

α,α-Dimethylphenethylaminefen-phenMetra
Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).
Phentermine (contracted from phenyl-tertiary-butylamine), also known as α,α-dimethylphenethylamine, is a psychostimulant drug of the substituted amphetamine chemical class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine.

Amfepramone

diethylpropiondiethylcathinoneAmfepramone (diethylpropion)
Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).
Amfepramone, also known as diethylpropion, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.

Pyrovalerone

Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).
Pyrovalerone (Centroton, 4-Methyl-β-keto-prolintane, Thymergix, O-2371) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant effects via acting as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), and is used for the clinical treatment of chronic fatigue or lethargy and as an anorectic or appetite suppressant for weight loss purposes.

Cathinone

L -Cathinonecathinones
Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).
It is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect of Catha edulis.

Paranoia

paranoidmonsterparanoid delusions
In some cases psychiatric phenomenon may emerge such as stimulant psychosis, paranoia, and suicidal ideation.
Drug-induced paranoia, associated with amphetamines, methamphetamine and similar stimulants has much in common with schizophrenic paranoia; the relationship has been under investigation since 2012.

Dextroamphetamine

d-amphetamineDexedrine D -amphetamine
Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADHD. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Reuptake inhibitor

inhibitinhibitorinhibiting
Many drugs in this class work primarily by activating trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); in turn, this causes reuptake inhibition and effluxion, or release, of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
Various drugs exert their psychological and physiological effects through reuptake inhibition, including many antidepressants and psychostimulants.

Adderall

amphetamine mixed saltsmixed amphetamine saltsAdderall XR
Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADHD.
Adderall, Adderall XR (Extended Release), and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.

Mood disorder

depressionmood disordersmood
Stimulants have been used in medicine for many conditions including obesity, sleep disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, asthma, nasal congestion and as anesthetics.
For example, stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine can cause manic, hypomanic, mixed, and depressive episodes.

Amphetamine

speedbenzedrineamphetamines
The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine. It is estimated that the percentage of the population that has abused amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, etc.) and cocaine combined is between 0.8% and 2.1%. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADHD.
Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Levoamphetamine

L -amphetamineL-amphetaminelevamfetamine
Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
Levoamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant known to increase wakefulness and concentration in association with decreased appetite and fatigue.

Xanthine

methylxanthinemethylxanthinesxanthine derivatives
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate.
A number of stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine.