Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a single-celled prokaryote
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

- Stimulant

Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart).

- Sympathomimetic drug
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

9 related topics

Alpha

Amphetamine

Amphetamine (contracted from a lpha- m ethyl ph en et hyl amine ) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine.

Cocaine

Cocaine hydrochloride
Lines of cocaine prepared for snorting
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Crack cocaine and cocaine was found to be the third and fifth overall most dangerous drugs respectively.
Side effects of chronic cocaine use
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
A woman smoking crack cocaine
"Rocks" of crack cocaine
Biological source of cocaine molecule in the context of the tropane class of molecules. The biological source of each tropane alkaloid is indicated by species, and below that a phylogenetic map is provided.
Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation
Biosynthesis of cocaine
Robinson biosynthesis of tropane
Reduction of tropinone
Coca leaf in Bolivia
"Cocaine toothache drops", 1885 advertisement of cocaine for dental pain in children
Advertisement in the January 1896 issue of McClure's Magazine for Burnett's Cocaine "for the hair".
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hip flask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
In this 1904 advice column from the Tacoma Times, "Madame Falloppe" recommended that cold sores be treated with a solution of borax, cocaine, and morphine.
Women purchase cocaine capsules in Berlin, 1929
D.C. Mayor Marion Barry captured on a surveillance camera smoking crack cocaine during a sting operation by the FBI and D.C. Police.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 Americans in 2017, with cocaine overdoses making up 13,942 of those deaths.
United States CBP police inspect a seized shipment of cocaine
The U.S. Coast Guard in Miami offloading confiscated cocaine
Cocaine smuggled in a charango, 2008
Cocaine adulterated with fruit flavoring
Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid (top line in 2017). The gray line is cocaine without any opioids (bottom line in 2017). The yellow line is cocaine and other (middle line in 2017).<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates| archive-date=28 November 2015 | work =  By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm.<ref name="Lancet">{{cite journal|vauthors = Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C|title = Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|journal = Lancet|volume = 369|issue = 9566|pages = 1047–53|date = March 2007|pmid = 17382831|doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|s2cid = 5903121|author-link4 = Colin Blakemore|author-link1 = David Nutt }}</ref>

Cocaine (from cocaïne, from coca, ultimately from Quechua: kúka) is a tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug obtained primarily from the leaves of two coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

Cocaine acts as an indirect sympathomimetic by blocking the dopamine transporter, inhibiting reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic axon terminal; the higher dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft increase dopamine receptor activation in the post-synaptic neuron, which drives the effects of euphoria and arousal.

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.

Drugs that increase synaptic dopamine concentrations include psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine.

Methamphetamine

About the stimulant drug.

About the stimulant drug.

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are amphetamine, 4‑hydroxyamphetamine, 4‑hydroxynorephedrine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, and norephedrine.

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Ecstasy was ranked 18th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.

MDMA

Psychoactive drug primarily used for recreational purposes.

Psychoactive drug primarily used for recreational purposes.

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Ecstasy was ranked 18th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
MDMA induced transporter reversal on human serotonin transporters (SERT), which leads to serotonin release.
In the serotonergic neurons of humans, extracellular MDMA releases serotonin via serotonin transporters (SERT). Intracellular MDMA inhibits VMAT2 and, to a much lesser extent, MAO-A.
Main metabolic pathways of MDMA in humans.
Alexander and Ann Shulgin in December 2011
A 1995 Vibe Tribe rave in Erskineville, New South Wales, Australia being broken up by police. MDMA use spread globally along with rave culture.
UNODC map showing the use of ecstasy by country in 2014 for the global population aged 15–64

It belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs and has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.

Acute toxicity is mainly caused by serotonin syndrome and sympathomimetic effects.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)

Ephedrine

Medication and stimulant.

Medication and stimulant.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)
Ephedrine tablets
Proposed biosynthetic pathway of ephedrine from L -phenylalanine and pyruvic acid.
The four stereoisomers of ephedrine
<center>Norephedrine</center>
<center>Ephedrine</center>
<center>N-Methylephedrine</center>

Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine and substituted amphetamine.

L -ephedrine, and particularly its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha edulis) has indirect sympathomimetic effects and due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, it is a CNS stimulant similar to amphetamines, but less pronounced, as it releases noradrenaline and dopamine in the substantia nigra.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

It is found that the endocannabinoid anandamide and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 can modify the overall response to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which indicates that prejunctional CB1 receptors mediate the sympatho-inhibitory action.

These are drugs whose primary effects are thought to be mediated by different neurotransmitter systems (dopamine for stimulants, serotonin for antidepressants), but many also increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain.

Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)

Pseudoephedrine

Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)
A warning at an Australian pharmacy

Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses.

Khat

Flowering plant native to the East and West Hararghe zones of Ethiopia.

Flowering plant native to the East and West Hararghe zones of Ethiopia.

Khat leaves
Qat tree, Yemen
Khat cultivation in western Yemen near At Tawilah
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Khat was ranked 17th in dependence, 20th in physical harm, and 20th in social harm.
Cathinone structure
Man in Mogadishu dividing khat into bunches for guests in preparation for a long evening of tea, conversation and chewing
Man chewing khat in Sana'a, Yemen (January 2009)
Harari men consuming khat in the street of Harar, Ethiopia
Khat market in Ethiopia
Bundles of khat, seized by the DEA in July 2006

Khat contains the alkaloid cathinone, a stimulant, which is said to cause excitement, loss of appetite, and euphoria.

Dilated pupils (mydriasis) are prominent during khat consumption, reflecting the sympathomimetic effects of the drug, which are also reflected in increased heart rate and blood pressure.