Stimulant

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

- Stimulant
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

75 related topics

Alpha

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

These are drugs whose primary effects are thought to be mediated by different neurotransmitter systems (dopamine for stimulants, serotonin for antidepressants), but many also increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain.

The structural formula of phenethylamine with marked substitution points. Phenethylamine is obtained when R2=R3=R4=R5=R6=RN=Rα=Rβ=H.

Substituted phenethylamine

Composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

Composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

The structural formula of phenethylamine with marked substitution points. Phenethylamine is obtained when R2=R3=R4=R5=R6=RN=Rα=Rβ=H.
The structural formula of phenethylamine

Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA), appetite suppressants (e.g. phentermine), nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., levomethamphetamine and pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion and phenelzine), antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, carelessness, hyperactivity (which can evolve into inner restlessness in adulthood), and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, carelessness, hyperactivity (which can evolve into inner restlessness in adulthood), and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting
The left prefrontal cortex, shown here in blue, is often affected in ADHD.
Percent of people 4–17 ever diagnosed in the US as of 2011
Timeline of ADHD diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and treatment

However, smaller studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms in genes related to catecholaminergic neurotransmission or the SNARE complex of the synapse can reliably predict a person's response to stimulant medication.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a single-celled prokaryote

Sympathomimetic drug

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a single-celled prokaryote

Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart).

The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

Alkaloid

Alkaloids are a class of basic, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom.

Alkaloids are a class of basic, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom.

The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
The article that introduced the concept of "alkaloid".
Friedrich Sertürner, the German chemist who first isolated morphine from opium.
Bufotenin, an alkaloid from some toads, contains an indole core, and is produced in living organisms from the amino acid tryptophan.
The nicotine molecule contains both pyridine (left) and pyrrolidine rings (right).
Head of a lamb born by a sheep that ate leaves of the corn lily plant. The cyclopia is induced by the cyclopamine present in the plant.
Strychnine tree. Its seeds are rich in strychnine and brucine.
Crystals of piperine extracted from black pepper.
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Voacamine
Villalstonine
Toxiferine
Dauricine
Tubocurarine
Carpaine
Thebaine
Naloxone

Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine), and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century

Insomnia

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century
Potential complications of insomnia.
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.

Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake

Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)

Pseudoephedrine

Sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

Sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)
A warning at an Australian pharmacy

It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)

Ephedrine

Medication and stimulant.

Medication and stimulant.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)
Ephedrine tablets
Proposed biosynthetic pathway of ephedrine from L -phenylalanine and pyruvic acid.
The four stereoisomers of ephedrine
<center>Norephedrine</center>
<center>Ephedrine</center>
<center>N-Methylephedrine</center>

L -ephedrine, and particularly its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha edulis) has indirect sympathomimetic effects and due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, it is a CNS stimulant similar to amphetamines, but less pronounced, as it releases noradrenaline and dopamine in the substantia nigra.

Man chewing khat

Cathinone

Monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.

Monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.

Man chewing khat
Mechanism of the Non-Beta Oxidation pathway for the biosynthesis of S-Cathinone in the Khat plant
Chemical structure of bupropion, a cathinone derivative

It is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect of Catha edulis also known as khat.

Phenethylamine

Electrosynthesis of phenethylamine from benzyl cyanide

Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine, which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.