A report on Stimulant

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

- Stimulant
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

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Tobacco flakes, sliced from pressed plugs

Tobacco

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Common name of several plants in the genus Nicotiana of the family Solanaceae, and the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of these plants.

Common name of several plants in the genus Nicotiana of the family Solanaceae, and the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of these plants.

Tobacco flakes, sliced from pressed plugs
Tobacco drying kiln in Myrtleford, Victoria, Australia, 2018. This kiln was built in 1957, and moved to Rotary Park in 2000. Kilns of this structure were made from the early 1930s through to the late 1960s.
Basma tobacco leaves drying in the sun at Pomak village in Xanthi, Greece
William Michael Harnett (American, 1848–1892), Still Life with Three Castles Tobacco, 1880, Brooklyn Museum.
The earliest depiction of a European man smoking, from Tobacco by Anthony Chute, 1595.
An Indian man smoking tobacco on hookah, Rajasthan, India.
An illustration from Frederick William Fairholt's Tobacco, its History and Association, 1859
Tobacco plant and tobacco leaf from the Deli plantations in Sumatra, 1905
Nicotine is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of tobacco use.
Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) flower, leaves, and buds
Illustration with photographs of tobacco leaves infested by Lasioderma serricorne (tobacco beetles), from Runner, G. A., The tobacco beetle (1919), Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biodiversity Heritage Library
Tobacco plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania.
Tobacco barn in Simsbury, Connecticut used for air curing of shade tobacco
Sun-cured tobacco, Bastam, Iran
Tobacco production, 2018
Tobacco production in Portuguese Timor in the 1930s
Tobacco plantation, Pinar del Río, Cuba
Tobacco harvesting, Viñales Valley, Cuba

Tobacco contains the highly addictive stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids.

Troparil

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Troparil (also known as (–)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane, WIN 35,065-2, or β-CPT) is a stimulant drug used in scientific research.

Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor

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Type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

Phencyclidine (Sernyl) – discontinued anesthetic and dissociative psychostimulant drug of abuse; SNDRI action likely contributes to effects and abuse potential

Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup

Dextromethorphan

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Medication most often used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines.

Medication most often used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines.

Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup
Main metabolic pathways of dextromethorphan degradation, which are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT).
Racemate separation for synthesis of Dextromethorphan
Dextromethorphan gel capsules

It is in the morphinan class of medications with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at lower doses).

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Federal Analogue Act

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Section of the United States Controlled Substances Act passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were listed in Schedule I, but only if intended for human consumption.

Section of the United States Controlled Substances Act passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were listed in Schedule I, but only if intended for human consumption.

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(ii) which has a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system that is substantially similar to or greater than the stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system of a controlled substance in schedule I or II; or

The human heart

Heart rate

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Speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of the heart per minute (bpm).

Speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of the heart per minute (bpm).

The human heart
Autonomic Innervation of the Heart – Cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitory areas are components of the paired cardiac centers located in the medulla oblongata of the brain. They innervate the heart via sympathetic cardiac nerves that increase cardiac activity and vagus (parasympathetic) nerves that slow cardiac activity.
Effects of Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Stimulation on Normal Sinus Rhythm – The wave of depolarization in a normal sinus rhythm shows a stable resting HR. Following parasympathetic stimulation, HR slows. Following sympathetic stimulation, HR increases.
Heart rate (HR) (top trace) and tidal volume (Vt) (lung volume, second trace) plotted on the same chart, showing how heart rate increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration.
The various formulae provide slightly different numbers for the maximum heart rates by age.
Fox and Haskell formula; widely used.
At 21 days after conception, the human heart begins beating at 70 to 80 beats per minute and accelerates linearly for the first month of beating.
Wrist heart rate monitor
Heart rate monitor with a wrist receiver
ECG-RRinterval
In obstetrics, heart rate can be measured by ultrasonography, such as in this embryo (at bottom left in the sac) of 6 weeks with a heart rate of approximately 90 per minute.
Pulsatile retinal blood flow in the optic nerve head region revealed by laser Doppler imaging

Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.

An impure tablet sold as MDMA seized by law enforcement in the United States. The tablet was determined to contain no MDMA; instead, it contained a mixture of BZP, methamphetamine, and caffeine.

Clandestine chemistry

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Chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

Chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

An impure tablet sold as MDMA seized by law enforcement in the United States. The tablet was determined to contain no MDMA; instead, it contained a mixture of BZP, methamphetamine, and caffeine.

from Portuguese oxidado) is a stimulant drug based on cocaine paste originally developed in the Brazilian Amazon forest region.

Placebos are typically inert tablets, such as sugar pills

Placebo

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Sham substance or treatment which is designed to have no known therapeutic value.

Sham substance or treatment which is designed to have no known therapeutic value.

Placebos are typically inert tablets, such as sugar pills
The "placebo effect" may be related to expectations, yet open-label studies prove it has effects.
A quack treating a patient with Perkins Patent Tractors by James Gillray, 1801. John Haygarth used this remedy to illustrate the power of the placebo effect.

A placebo presented as a stimulant may trigger an effect on heart rhythm and blood pressure, but when administered as a depressant, the opposite effect.

Anorexia (symptom)

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Medical term for a loss of appetite.

Medical term for a loss of appetite.

Stimulants, such as ephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, cathinone, methylphenidate, nicotine, cocaine, caffeine, etc.

Excessive daytime sleepiness

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Characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.

Characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.

Drugs like modafinil, Armodafinil, Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution, have been approved as treatment for EDS symptoms in the U.S. There is declining usage of other drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), amphetamine (Adderall), lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and pemoline (Cylert), as these psychostimulants may have several adverse effects and may lead to dependency, especially when illicitly misused.