Stock

equitiesequitysharesequity securitiessharecapital stockstockspublic stockcorporate stocksEquities trading
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is all of the shares into which ownership of the corporation is divided.wikipedia
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Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is all of the shares into which ownership of the corporation is divided.
Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not.

Stock exchange

stock exchangesexchangebourse
Stock can be bought and sold privately or on stock exchanges, and such transactions are typically heavily regulated by governments to prevent fraud, protect investors, and benefit the larger economy.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.

Equity issuance

equity salesnew shares are issued
As new shares are issued by a company, the ownership and rights of existing shareholders are diluted in return for cash to sustain or grow the business.
In financial markets, an equity issuance is the sale of new equity or stock by a firm to investors.

Capital gain

capital gainscapital growthreal assets
Companies can also buy back stock, which often lets investors recoup the initial investment plus capital gains from subsequent rises in stock price.
A capital gain refers to profit that results from a sale of a capital asset, such as stock, bond or real estate, where the sale price exceeds the purchase price.

Stock certificate

share certificatestock certificatesShares
Ownership of shares may be documented by issuance of a stock certificate.
In corporate law, a stock certificate (also known as certificate of stock or share certificate) is a legal document that certifies ownership of a specific number of shares or stock in a corporation.

Security (finance)

securitiessecuritydebt securities
In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Australia, stock can also refer to completely different financial instruments such as government bonds or, less commonly, to all kinds of marketable securities.
In some jurisdictions, the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments.

Preferred stock

preference sharespreferred sharespreference share
Stock typically takes the form of shares of either common stock or preferred stock.
Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares or simply preferreds) is a type of stock which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument.

Shareholder

shareholdersstockholderstockholders
This typically entitles the stockholder to that fraction of the company's earnings, proceeds from liquidation of assets (after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt), or voting power, often dividing these up in proportion to the amount of money each stockholder has invested.
A shareholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.

Bond (finance)

bondsbondbond issue
In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Australia, stock can also refer to completely different financial instruments such as government bonds or, less commonly, to all kinds of marketable securities.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that (capital) stockholders have an equity stake in a company (that is, they are owners), whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company (that is, they are lenders).

Par value

parat parface value
In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation.
The par value of stock has no relation to market value and, as a concept, is somewhat archaic.

Stock market index

stock indexindexstock market indices
The underlying security may be a stock index or an individual firm's stock, e.g. single-stock futures.
It is computed from the prices of selected stocks (typically a weighted average).

Derivative (finance)

derivativesderivativefinancial derivatives
A stock derivative is any financial instrument for which the underlying asset is the price of an equity.
Derivatives are one of the three main categories of financial instruments, the other two being stocks (i.e., equities or shares) and debt (i.e., bonds and mortgages).

Employee stock option

stock optionsemployee stock optionsoptions
Apart from call options granted to employees, most stock options are transferable.
Employee stock options are commonly viewed as a complex call option on the common stock of a company, granted by the company to an employee as part of the employee's remuneration package.

Equity derivative

equity derivativesEquityEquity market
Stock index futures are generally delivered by cash settlement.
In finance, an equity derivative is a class of derivatives whose value is at least partly derived from one or more underlying equity securities.

Debt

debtsprincipalborrowing
This typically entitles the stockholder to that fraction of the company's earnings, proceeds from liquidation of assets (after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt), or voting power, often dividing these up in proportion to the amount of money each stockholder has invested.
Companies also use debt in many ways to leverage the investment made in their assets, "leveraging" the return on their equity.

Put option

putput optionsputs
Specifically, a call option is the right (not obligation) to buy stock in the future at a fixed price and a put option is the right (not obligation) to sell stock in the future at a fixed price.
The most widely traded put options are on stocks/equities, but they are traded on many other instruments such as interest rates (see interest rate floor) or commodities.

Joint-stock company

joint stock companyJSCjoint-stock
These companies were similar to modern corporations, or joint-stock companies more specifically, in a couple of aspects.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

Financial instrument

financial instrumentsinstrumentinstruments
In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Australia, stock can also refer to completely different financial instruments such as government bonds or, less commonly, to all kinds of marketable securities.

Long (finance)

longlong positionlong positions
Stock futures are contracts where the buyer is long, i.e., takes on the obligation to buy on the contract maturity date, and the seller is short, i.e., takes on the obligation to sell.
In terms of a security, such as a stock or a bond, or equivalently to be long in a security means the holder of the instrument owns the security and will profit if the price of the security goes up. It is an essential investment concept and it is applicable across various asset classes such as currencies and commodities.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutchDutch VOC
Soon afterwards, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued the first shares that were made tradeable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, an invention that enhanced the ability of joint-stock companies to attract capital from investors as they now easily could dispose of their shares.
The VOC is generally considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation and it was also the first multinational enterprise to issue shares of stock to the public.

Exchange-traded fund

ETFETFsexchange-traded funds
The largest shareholders (in terms of percentages of companies owned) are often mutual funds, and, especially, passively managed exchange-traded funds.
An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.

Privately held company

Privateprivately heldprivate company
For example, in California, USA, majority shareholders of closely held corporations have a duty not to destroy the value of the shares held by minority shareholders.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately or over-the-counter.

Euronext Amsterdam

AmsterdamEuropean Options Exchangefirst modern stock exchange
Soon afterwards, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued the first shares that were made tradeable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, an invention that enhanced the ability of joint-stock companies to attract capital from investors as they now easily could dispose of their shares.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or "VOC") for dealings in its printed stocks and bonds.

Hybrid Investment

hybrid
Preferred stock may be hybrid by having the qualities of bonds of fixed returns and common stock voting rights.
The two most popular types of Hybrid Investments are Preferred Stock and Convertible Bonds.

Electronic communication network

ECNECNselectronic networks
In the United States, through the intermarket trading system, stocks listed on one exchange can often also be traded on other participating exchanges, including electronic communication networks (ECNs), such as Archipelago or Instinet.
The primary products that are traded on ECNs are stocks and currencies.