Stomach

Scheme of digestive tract, with stomach in red.
1. Body of stomach 2. Fundus 3. Anterior wall 4. Greater curvature 5. Lesser curvature 6. Cardia 9. Pyloric sphincter 10. Pyloric antrum 11. Pyloric canal 12. Angular incisure 13. Gastric canal 14. Rugae
Schematic image of the blood supply to the human stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastroepiploic artery and short gastric artery.
The gastrointestinal wall of the human stomach.
Histology of normal fundic mucosa. Fundic glands are simple, branched tubular glands that extend from the bottom of the gastric pits to the muscularis mucosae; the more distinctive cells are parietal cells. H&E stain.
Histology of normal antral mucosa. Antral mucosa is formed by branched coiled tubular glands lined by secretory cells similar in appearance to the surface mucus cells. H&E stain.
An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65-year-old woman.
Endoscopic image of a fundic gland polyp.
Greater omentum and stomach of humans
A more realistic image, showing the celiac artery and its branches in humans; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.
An autopsy of a human stomach, showing the many folds ({{wt|en|rugae}}) of the stomach. 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
Human stomach
High-quality image of the stomach

Muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

- Stomach

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Duodenum

First section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

Image of the gastrointestinal tract, with the duodenum highlighted.
Dog Duodenum 100X
Duodenum with amyloid deposition in lamina propria
Section of duodenum of cat. X 60
Micrograph showing giardiasis on a duodenal biopsy (H&E stain)
Duodenum with brush border (microvillus)
Sections of the small intestine
The celiac artery and its branches; the stomach has been raised and the peritoneum removed
Superior and inferior duodenal fossæ
Duodenojejunal fossa
The pancreas and duodenum from behind
Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas
The pancreatic duct
Region of pancreas
Duodenum
Duodenum
Duodenum

In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the middle part of the small intestine.

Digestion

Breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, bringing the two cells together. 3- The mobile plasmid is nicked and a single strand of DNA is transferred to the recipient cell. 4- Both cells recircularize their plasmids, synthesize second strands, and reproduce pili; both cells are now viable donors.
Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaf
Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica with ingested erythrocytes
Rough illustration of a ruminant digestive system
A flesh fly "blowing a bubble", possibly to concentrate its food by evaporating water
Action of the major digestive hormones

It will then travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis.

Pancreas

Organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

Anatomy of the pancreas
The pancreas (shown here in pink) sits behind the stomach, with the body near the curvature of the duodenum, and the tail stretching to touch the spleen.
Diagram showing different functional parts of the pancreas
This image shows a pancreatic islet when pancreatic tissue is stained and viewed under a microscope. Parts of the digestive ("exocrine") pancreas can be seen around the islet, more darkly. These contain hazy dark purple granules of inactive digestive enzymes (zymogens).
A pancreatic islet that uses fluorescent antibodies to show the location of different cell types in the pancreatic islet. Antibodies against glucagon, secreted by alpha cells, show their peripheral position. Antibodies against insulin, secreted by beta cells, show the more widespread and central position that these cells tend to have.
The pancreas originates from the foregut, a precursor tube to part of the digestive tract, as a dorsal and ventral bud. As it develops, the ventral bud rotates to the other side and the two buds fuse together.
The pancreas maintains constant blood glucose levels (shown as the waving line). When the blood glucose level is too high, the pancreas secretes insulin and when the level is too low, the pancreas secretes glucagon.
The pancreas has a role in digestion, highlighted here. Ducts in the pancreas (green) conduct digestive enzymes into the duodenum. This image also shows a pancreatic islet, part of the endocrine pancreas, which contains cells responsible for secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Pancreatic cancer, shown here, most commonly occurs as an adenocarcinoma in the head of the pancreas. Because symptoms (such as skin yellowing, pain, or itch) do not occur until later in the disease, it often presents at a later stage and has limited treatment options.
thumb|A normal pancreas on ultrasound.
thumb|Identifying pancreas on abdominal ultrasonography when it is partly obscured by bowel gas.
Pancreas of a human embryo at end of sixth week
The pancreas and its surrounding structures
Duodenum and pancreas. Deep dissection.

In humans, it is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland.

Organ (biology)

Organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

Many of the internal organs of the human body
The liver and gallbladder of a sheep
Relationship of major animal lineages with indication of how long ago these animals shared a common ancestor. On the left, important organs are shown, which allows us to determine how long ago these may have evolved.
The flower is the angiosperm's reproductive organ. This Hibiscus flower is hermaphroditic, and it contains stamen and pistils.
Strobilus of Equisetum telmateia
Human viscera

The hollow organs of the abdomen are the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, bladder, and rectum.

Human digestive system

See also gastrointestinal tract.

Human digestive system
Adult digestive system
3D Medical illustration explaining the oral digestive system
The main salivary glands
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Cross section of circumvallate papilla showing arrangement of nerves and taste buds
200px
Esophagus shown in yellow passing behind the trachea and the heart
Areas of the stomach
Liver and gall bladder
Gallbladder shown in green below the liver
Pancreas, duodenum and bile duct
Action of digestive hormones
Illustration of small intestine
Layers of the small intestine
Cecum and beginning of ascending colon
Lower GI tract - 3) Small intestine; 5) Cecum; 6) Large intestine
Arteries and veins around the pancreas and spleen
Dietary life rules, Japan, Edo period Illustrating the ill effects of drinking alcohol on the digestive system.
Historical depiction of the digestive system, 17th century Persia

This produces a bolus which is swallowed down the esophagus to enter the stomach.

Abdominal cavity

Large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.

The abdominal cavity is labeled 3 in this image, and together with the pelvic cavity (4) it makes up the abdominopelvic cavity 6.

Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.

Peritoneum

Serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

The peritoneum, colored in blue
Median sagittal section of pelvis, showing the arrangement of fasciæ
Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the lower part of the abdomen
Sagittal section through posterior abdominal wall, showing the relations of the capsule of the kidney
Topography of thoracic and abdominal viscera
Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the upper part of the abdomen

The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder).

Chyme

Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice" ) is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by a person's stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).

Greater omentum

Large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.

The greater omentum and corresponding vasculature is visible covering the intestines (dissection image with liver held out of the way). Label at bottom.
Greater and lesser omentum
Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the upper part of the abdomen (phrenicolienal ligament labeled at bottom left)
Diagram to show the lines along which the peritoneum leaves the wall of the abdomen to invest the viscera (phrenicosplenic ligament labeled at center right)
Two of the stages in the development of the digestive tube and its mesentery. The arrow indicates the entrance to the bursa omentalis
Vertical disposition of the peritoneum. Main cavity, red; omental bursa, blue. (Greater omentum labeled at left.)
The greater omentum is attached to the lower portion of the stomach (here the attachment is cut and the stomach is lifted up).
The celiac artery and its branches; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.
Schematic figure of the bursa omentalis, etc. Human embryo of eight weeks.
Diagrams to illustrate the development of the greater omentum and transverse mesocolon.
Greater omentum. Deep dissection.

It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and doubles back to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall.

Gastrointestinal tract

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human
Illustration of the small intestine

The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.