Stomach

gastricfunduscardiagastric emptyinggastroesophageal junctiongastric secretionfundicgastric fundusbody of stomachlower esophageal sphincter
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.wikipedia
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Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

Gastric acid

stomach acidgastric juicegastric juices
It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion.
Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl).

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreashead of the pancreas
Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas.
In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A hollow organ is an internal organ that forms a hollow tube, or pouch such as the stomach, intestine, or bladder.

Chyme

chymuschyme digestivematerial
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice" ) is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ.
It will then travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis.

Curvatures of the stomach

greater curvaturelesser curvaturegreater curvature of the stomach
A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach.
The curvatures of the stomach refer to the greater and lesser curvatures.

Digestive enzyme

digestive enzymespancreatic enzymepancreatic enzymes
It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion.
In the human digestive system, the main sites of digestion are the oral cavity, the stomach, and the small intestine.

Greater omentum

omentumomentalomentectomy
A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach.
It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and doubles back to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall.

Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneum
A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach.
The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder).

Gastric mucosa

mucosastomach mucosagastric
The gastric mucosa of the stomach consists of the epithelium and the lamina propria (composed of loose connective tissue), with a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae separating it from the submucosa beneath.
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach, which contains the glands and the gastric pits.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
The gastric mucosa of the stomach consists of the epithelium and the lamina propria (composed of loose connective tissue), with a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae separating it from the submucosa beneath.
Smooth muscle cells are found in the walls of hollow organs, including the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder and uterus, and in the walls of passageways, such as the arteries and veins of the circulatory system, and the tracts of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems.

Pylorus

pyloric sphincterpyloricpyloric valve
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.
The pylorus ( or ), or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.

Abdominal cavity

abdominalabdominal (peritoneal) cavityabdominal-cavity
It is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity.
Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.

Gastrin

gastrinshypergastrinemiaantral segment
They secrete gastrin produced by their G cells.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.

Gastric chief cell

chief cellschief cells, gastricChief (zymogenic) cell
Highly stomach-specific proteins include GKN1, expressed in the mucosa; pepsinogen PGC and the lipase LIPF, expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.

Duodenum

duodenaldodecadactylumduodenal cap
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.
In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum.

Left gastric artery

left gastricleft gastric arteries
The lesser curvature of the human stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly, and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region.
In human anatomy, the left gastric artery arises from the celiac artery and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

Human digestive system

digestive systemdigestivedigestive tract
The inner oblique layer: This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food. It is the only layer of the three which is not seen in other parts of the digestive system. The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus.
This produces a bolus which can be swallowed down the esophagus to enter the stomach.

Peristalsis

peristalticgut motilityperistaltic contractions
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.

Pepsin

pepsinogenpepsinogen PGCpepsin a
Highly stomach-specific proteins include GKN1, expressed in the mucosa; pepsinogen PGC and the lipase LIPF, expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.
It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food.

Parasympathetic nervous system

parasympatheticparasympathetic nerveparasympathetic nerves
The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and sympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (networks of blood vessels and nerves in the anterior gastric, posterior, superior and inferior, celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles.
2) The vagus nerve does not participate in these cranial ganglia as most of its parasympathetic fibers are destined for a broad array of ganglia on or near thoracic viscera (esophagus, trachea, heart, lungs) and abdominal viscera (stomach, pancreas, liver, kidneys, small intestine, and about half of the large intestine). The vagus innervation ends at the junction between the midgut and hindgut, just before the splenic flexure of the transverse colon.

Parietal cell

parietal cellscanaliculiparietal
Highly stomach-specific proteins include GKN1, expressed in the mucosa; pepsinogen PGC and the lipase LIPF, expressed in chief cells; and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells.
These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the cardia of the stomach.