A report on Stonehenge

Stonehenge in July 2007
Stonehenge in July 2007
Plan of Stonehenge in 2004. After Cleal et al. and Pitts. Italicised numbers in the text refer to the labels on this plan. Trilithon lintels omitted for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles. Stones visible today are shown coloured.
Stonehenge 1. After Cleal et al.
Graffiti on the sarsen stones include ancient carvings of a dagger and an axe
Sketch showing the tongue and groove and mortise and tenon joints used in the outer Sarsen circle
Plan of the central stone structure today; after Johnson 2008
Computer rendering of the overall site
The southwest face of the Heel Stone in May 2016
The sun behind the Heel Stone on the Summer solstice, shortly after sunrise
The oldest known depiction of Stonehenge, from the second quarter of the 14th century. A giant helps Merlin build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Roman de Brut by Wace in the British Library (Egerton 3028).
The earliest-known realistic painting of Stonehenge, drawn on site with watercolours by Lucas de Heere between 1573 and 1575
Farm waggons near the site, c. 1885
10th Battalion, CEF marches past the site, winter 1914–15 (the First World War); Background: Preservation work on stones, propped up by timbers
Sunrise at Stonehenge on the summer solstice, 21 June 2005
Dancing inside the stones, 1984 Stonehenge Free Festival
Stonehenge at sunset
The visitor centre at Stonehenge
17th-century depiction of Stonehenge from the Atlas van Loon
As painted by John Constable, 1835
An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July 1877
The monument from a similar angle in 2008 showing the extent of reconstruction
A contemporary newspaper depiction of the 1920 restoration

Prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, 2 mi west of Amesbury.

- Stonehenge
Stonehenge in July 2007

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Stonehenge

Amesbury

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Town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England.

Town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England.

Stonehenge
The Red House

It is known for the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge which is within the parish.

Stonehenge, the most famous antiquity on Salisbury Plain

Salisbury Plain

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Chalk plateau in the south western part of central southern England covering 300 sqmi.

Chalk plateau in the south western part of central southern England covering 300 sqmi.

Stonehenge, the most famous antiquity on Salisbury Plain
Rough map of military training area (green) on Salisbury Plain within Wiltshire (blue) (it accounts for about half the area of Salisbury Plain)
Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain
Military use makes some areas of the plain inaccessible to the public.
Typical grassland at Netheravon Down.
The burnt-tip orchid (Neotinea ustulata) can be found on Salisbury Plain
The Duke of Burgundy butterfly (Hamearis lucina)
The cuckoo bee Nomada armata
The fairy shrimp Chirocephalus diaphanus
The stone curlew

The plain is famous for its rich archaeology, including Stonehenge, one of England's best known landmarks.

Stonehenge

Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites

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UNESCO World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, England.

UNESCO World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, England.

Stonehenge
Avebury Henge and village

It covers an area of 26 square km and is centred on the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge.

A reconstruction of Old Sarum in the 12th century

Salisbury

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Cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder and Bourne.

Cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder and Bourne.

A reconstruction of Old Sarum in the 12th century
Salisbury viewed from Old Sarum
The Great West Front of Salisbury Cathedral
The 15th-century Doom painting in St Thomas' church
A picture of Minster Street, c. 1870
Secret Spitfire Memorial, view from the south
Salisbury Guildhall, completed in 1795, is now the meeting place of the City Council
Queen Elizabeth Gardens, showing part of the River Avon diverted through the gardens
The 15th-century Poultry Cross marked the section of the market trading in poultry
Butchers Row in the city centre
Salisbury High Street
St Martin's Church (Church of England)
Salisbury Museum, housed in the King's House.
Salisbury bus station in 2010 (since closed)
Salisbury Racecourse with the cathedral in the distance

Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is 8 mi northwest of Salisbury.

Southern Wall of Durrington Walls

Durrington Walls

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Site of a large Neolithic settlement and later henge enclosure located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in England.

Site of a large Neolithic settlement and later henge enclosure located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in England.

Southern Wall of Durrington Walls
Southern Wall of Durrington Walls
Durrington Walls, as seen from the south of the monument. It is bisected here to the left by one of the two roads that now cross the prehistoric site.
Durrington Walls, seen from Woodhenge
Sunrise at the Durrington Walls reconstruction, which was produced for a special episode of Time Team that first aired in 2005.

It lies 2 mi north-east of Stonehenge in the parish of Durrington, just north of Amesbury in Wiltshire.

The three aligned henges of the Thornborough Henges complex

Henge

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The three aligned henges of the Thornborough Henges complex
Avebury henge contains several stone circles
The Ring of Brodgar, Orkney is a possible area of origin for henges
Excavated henge ditch on Wyke Down (Dorset). The ditch was originally dug as a causewayed enclosure and may therefore not be a henge.
Maelmin Henge, constructed in 2000

1) Henge (> 20 m). The word henge refers to a particular type of earthwork of the Neolithic period, typically consisting of a roughly circular or oval-shaped bank with an internal ditch surrounding a central flat area of more than 20 m in diameter. There is typically little if any evidence of occupation in a henge, although they may contain ritual structures such as stone circles, timber circles and coves. Henge monument is sometimes used as a synonym for henge. Henges sometimes, but by no means always, featured stone or timber circles, and circle henge is sometimes used to describe these structures. The three largest stone circles in Britain (Avebury, the Great Circle at Stanton Drew stone circles, and the Ring of Brodgar) are each within a henge. Examples of henges without significant internal monuments are the three henges of Thornborough Henges. Although having given its name to the word henge, Stonehenge is atypical in that the ditch is outside the main earthwork bank.

Stonehenge

Wiltshire

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Historic and ceremonial county in South West England with an area of 3485 km2.

Historic and ceremonial county in South West England with an area of 3485 km2.

Stonehenge
Cherhill White Horse, east of Calne
The County Ground, Swindon is the home of Swindon Town, the only football league club in Wiltshire
A bridge over the River Avon at Bradford-on-Avon
The flight of 16 locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal

Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles (which together are a UNESCO Cultural and World Heritage site ) and other ancient landmarks, and as a training area for the British Army.

A white disc marks the location of Aubrey hole number 21 on the western side of the southern entrance to Stonehenge. The monument's encircling bank and ditch are visible behind it.

Aubrey holes

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A white disc marks the location of Aubrey hole number 21 on the western side of the southern entrance to Stonehenge. The monument's encircling bank and ditch are visible behind it.
Plan of Stonehenge 1 with the Aubrey holes shown as white circles. After Cleal et al.

The Aubrey holes are a ring of fifty-six (56) chalk pits at Stonehenge, named after the seventeenth-century antiquarian John Aubrey.

The southern ditch and bank of the Cursus. It runs west to the gap in the trees.

Stonehenge Cursus

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The southern ditch and bank of the Cursus. It runs west to the gap in the trees.
The southern ditch and bank of the Cursus. It runs west to the gap in the trees.
The cursus viewed from its eastern end. The gap in the trees on the horizon marks its western end.

The Stonehenge Cursus (sometimes known as the Greater Cursus) is a large Neolithic cursus monument on Salisbury plain, near to Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England.

North-western inner bank of Vespasian's Camp

Vespasian's Camp

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Iron Age hillfort just west of the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England.

Iron Age hillfort just west of the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England.

North-western inner bank of Vespasian's Camp
The location of Vespasian's Camp Iron Age hillfort in relation to West Amesbury, Amesbury Abbey and the modern town of Amesbury shown on a six inches to the mile OS map of Wiltshire, England published in 1901.

The hillfort is less than 2 mi from the Neolithic and Bronze Age site of Stonehenge, and was built on a hill next to the Stonehenge Avenue; it has the River Avon on its southern side and the A303 road on its northern edge.