Stop consonant

PlosiveStopstopsplosivesplosive consonantvoiceless stopvoiced stopUnvoiced stopstop consonantsoral stop
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.wikipedia
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Nasal consonant

NasalNasalsnasal consonants
Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in and, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive or nasal stop in contrast with an oral stop or nasalized consonant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
He divides them into two subcategories: hēmíphōna, semivowels ("half-pronounced"), which correspond to continuants, not semivowels, and áphōna, mute or silent consonants ("unvoiced"), which correspond to stops, not voiceless consonants.

Occlusive

occlusionocclusivesPlosives
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

Implosive consonant

implosiveimplosives implosive
In addition, they use "plosive" for a pulmonic stop; "stops" in their usage include ejective and implosive consonants.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
There is debate as to whether true labiodental plosives occur in any natural language, though a number of languages are reported to have labiodental plosives including Zulu, Tonga, and Shubi.

Unreleased stop

no audible releaseunreleasedabsence of audible release
Some object to the use of "plosive" for inaudibly released stops, which may then instead be called "applosives".
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).

Affricate consonant

Affricateaffricatesaffrication
In affricates, the catch and hold are those of a stop, but the release is that of a fricative.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

Nasal release

nasalnasally releasedpost-nasalized
In many languages, such as Malay and Vietnamese, word-final stops lack a release burst, even when followed by a vowel, or have a nasal release.
In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a stop consonant into a nasal.

Manner of articulation

articulationmanners of articulationspeech
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
From greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants (with occlusion, or blocked airflow), fricative consonants (with partially blocked and therefore strongly turbulent airflow), approximants (with only slight turbulence), and vowels (with full unimpeded airflow).

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
In Ancient Greek, the term for stop was ἄφωνον (áphōnon), which means "unpronounceable", "voiceless", or "silent", because stops could not be pronounced without a vowel.
Ancient Greek had long and short vowels; many diphthongs; double and single consonants; voiced, voiceless, and aspirated stops; and a pitch accent.

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
In many languages, such as Malay and Vietnamese, word-final stops lack a release burst, even when followed by a vowel, or have a nasal release.

Voice onset time

voice-onset timeaspiratedonset of voicing
The duration between the release of the stop and the voice onset is called the voice onset time (VOT) or the aspiration interval.
In phonetics, voice onset time (VOT) is a feature of the production of stop consonants.

Samoan language

SamoanSāmoansmo
However, there are exceptions: Colloquial Samoan lacks the coronal, and several North American languages, such as the northern Iroquoian and southern Iroquoian languages (i.e., Cherokee), lack the labial.

Labial consonant

LabiallabialsBilabial
However, there are exceptions: Colloquial Samoan lacks the coronal, and several North American languages, such as the northern Iroquoian and southern Iroquoian languages (i.e., Cherokee), lack the labial.
The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops,, and, are bilabial and the fricatives,, and, are labiodental.

Contour (linguistics)

contourcontoursmixed voicing
That is, affricates are stop–fricative contours.
The most common contour consonants by far are the affricates, such as English ch and j. These start out as one manner, a stop, and release into a different manner, a fricative, but behave as single consonants:,.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-language
In many languages, such as Malay and Vietnamese, word-final stops lack a release burst, even when followed by a vowel, or have a nasal release.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
Stops are commonly voiceless, and many languages, such as Mandarin Chinese and Hawaiian, have only voiceless stops.
In Middle Chinese, initial stops and affricates showed a three-way contrast between tenuis, voiceless aspirated and voiced consonants.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
This term was calqued into Latin as mūta, and from there borrowed into English as mute.

Gemination

geminategeminatedgeminate consonant
In a geminate or long consonant, the occlusion lasts longer than in simple consonants.
In lengthened stops, the obstruction of the airway is prolonged, which delays release, and the "hold" is lengthened.

Australian Aboriginal languages

Australian Aboriginal languageAboriginalAustralian Aboriginal
Others, such as most Australian languages, are indeterminate: stops may vary between voiced and voiceless without distinction.
Both stops and nasals occur at all six places, and in some languages laterals occur at all four coronal places.

Proto-Celtic language

Proto-CelticCelticCommon Celtic
In fact, the labial is the least stable of the voiceless stops in the languages of the world, as the unconditioned sound change → is quite common in unrelated languages, having occurred in the history of Classical Japanese, Classical Arabic, and Proto-Celtic, for instance.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
In aspirated stops, the vocal cords (vocal folds) are abducted at the time of release.
English voiceless stops are aspirated for most native speakers when they are word-initial or begin a stressed syllable.

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
Voiced stops are pronounced with vibration of the vocal cords, voiceless stops without.
However, in the class of consonants called stops, such as, the contrast is more complicated for English.

Classical Arabic

ArabicClassicalQuranic Arabic
In fact, the labial is the least stable of the voiceless stops in the languages of the world, as the unconditioned sound change → is quite common in unrelated languages, having occurred in the history of Classical Japanese, Classical Arabic, and Proto-Celtic, for instance.

Tenuis consonant

tenuisunaspiratedplain
In tenuis stops, the vocal cords come together for voicing immediately following the release, and there is little or no aspiration (a voice onset time close to zero).
For most languages, the distinction is relevant only for stops and affricates.